Thursday, November 30, 2023

Sudan: On 23 Nov humanitarians reached C.Darfur, Zalingei, Golo, Rokero, from Kosti 1st time since April

GOOD news posted by @UNOCHA_Sudan to microblogging platform X on 28 Nov says: "On 23 Nov humanitarians reached Central Darfur, Zalingei, Golo and Rokero, from Kosti for the first time since April. The trucks carrying medical supplies started on 18 Oct as part of the 44 trucks moving to Kordofan and Darfur. The trucks have been delayed due to insecurity". [Ends]

WHO is in Sudan key states delivering health services & supporting several hospitals & mobile clinics

“Despite huge access challenges, WHO is on the ground in key states in Sudan delivering essential health services and supporting several hospitals and mobile clinics. WHO is very concerned about cholera in #Sudan. We have a lot of work to do in response to this serious outbreak, and for that we need access, and we need funds.” -Dr Richard Brennan, Regional Emergency Director, WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 27 Nov 2023. [Ends]

Thursday, November 23, 2023

Sudan Humanitarian Update (23 November 2023)

ANALYSIS

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)


BACKGROUND (4 days ago) 


Sudan: Seven months of conflict, Key Facts and Figures


Seven months after fighting erupted, Sudan is facing one of the fastest unfolding crises globally, with unprecedented needs in such a short period. Close to 6.2 million people – about one in every eight people in the country - have fled their homes since the conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) started in mid-April. They have sought refuge within Sudan or in neighbouring countries.


Almost 5 million displaced within Sudan and 1.2 million crossed the borders


According to the International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix (IOM DTM), close to 5 million people have been displaced by fighting within Sudan and have sought refuge in 5,312 locations across all 18 states. The displaced are from eight states, with the majority - about 3.4 million people (68 per cent of all internally displaced) - originally from Khartoum. Most have sought refuge in River Nile followed by South Darfur, East Darfur, Aj Jazirah, White Nile, North Darfur, Northern, Sennar and other states. About 1.2 million people have crossed into the neighbouring Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia and South Sudan as of  10 November, according to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR).


Close to 3,000 suspected cholera cases, other disease outbreaks


Disease outbreaks are increasing due to the disruption of basic public health services, including disease surveillance, functioning public health laboratory and rapid response teams. In addition, insecurity, displacement, limited access to medicines, medical supplies, electricity, and water continue to pose enormous challenges to delivering health care across the country. About 65 per cent of the population lack access to healthcare and between 70 - 80 per cent of hospitals in conflict-affected areas are no longer functional. Meanwhile, almost 3,000 suspected cases of cholera, including 95 deaths, have been reported from seven states as of 12 November, according to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Other disease outbreaks are ongoing in several states, including measles, malaria and dengue.


19 million children out of school


The conflict has deprived about 12 million children of schooling since April, with the total number of children in Sudan who are out of school reaching 19 million, Save the Children (SC) and the UN Children’s Agency (UNICEF) reported. Of this total, 6.5 million children — or 1 in every 3 children in the country — have lost access to school due to increased violence and insecurity, with at least 10,400 schools now closed in conflict - affected areas. Meanwhile, over 5.5 million children who reside in areas less affected by war are waiting for local authorities to confirm whether classrooms can be re-opened. Before April, nearly 7 million children were already out of school. If the war continues, no child in Sudan can return to school in the coming months, exposing them to immediate and long-term dangers, including displacement, recruitment into armed groups and sexual violence. Sudan is on the brink of becoming home to the worst education crisis in the world,” according to UNICEF.


Livelihoods decimated, economy to shrink by 12 per cent in 2023


The conflict is devastating the livelihoods of millions of people in Sudan. According to the World Bank, the economy is expected to contract by 12 per cent in 2023 because the conflict has halted production and destroyed human capital and state capacity. The growth forecast for Sudan has been revised downward by 12.5 percentage points as the armed conflict has damaged the country’s industrial base and education and health facilities. It has also led to a collapse in economic activity — including commerce, financial, and information and communications technology services — and the erosion of state capacity, with detrimental impacts on food security and forced displacement. For comparison, the economies of Yemen and Syria have shrunk by about 50 per cent over the past decade, or about 5 per cent per year on average. The pace of economic contraction in Sudan seems to have doubled that.


About 4.5 million people receive lifesaving assistance since April


Despite various challenges - insecurity, looting, bureaucratic impediments, poor network and phone connectivity problems, lack of cash, and few technical and humanitarian staff on the ground – affecting the delivery of  humanitarian assistance in many parts of the country, the humanitarian organizations have reached about 4.5 million people with multisectoral life-saving assistance and 5.5 million people with livelihood support since the start of the conflict. Prior to the conflict, 2.7 million people were reached with some form of humanitarian assistance from January to March 2023. This includes vital education, health, food, nutrition, water assistance and protection services.


More funding needed to reach more people


The 156 UN and NGO partners in Sudan can provide more people with assistance and services if the funding for humanitarian response is expedited. The revised 2023 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requires US$2.6 billion to provide life-saving multi-sectoral and protection assistance to 18.1 million people in desperate need through the end of this year. According to the Financial Tracking Service, the appeal is only 33.4 per cent funded, with $856.2 million received as of 15 November.


For the full PDF document, please click here

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Sudan Humanitarian Update 23 November 2023

ANALYSIS

People displaced from Khartoum receive food assistance in Wad Medani, Aj Jazirah State | Credit: OCHA/Ala Kheir


HIGHLIGHTS


• The number of people displaced inside and outside Sudan since mid-April has reached 6.3 million.
 

• About 5.1 million people have been displaced within Sudan. People have been displaced in 5,473 locations across all 18 states.
 

• Since mid-April, over 3,130 allegations of severe child rights violations have been reported in the country, with the Darfur region bearing at least half of the cases.
 

• If the ban blocking the movement of surgical supplies is not lifted, MSF may have to suspend surgical operations at the Turkish Hospital in Khartoum.
 

• Between April and 15 October, 154 humanitarian partners reached about 4.5 million people with life-saving assistance.
 

• The revised 2023 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan appeal is only 34.5 per cent funded as of 23 November.


SITUATION OVERVIEW


Since fighting between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) erupted in mid-April, an estimated 6.3 million people have fled their homes, taking refuge inside and outside the country, with children representing about half of the people displaced. Sudan is now the country with the largest number of displaced people in the world as prior to the fighting there were 3.7 million people internally displaced in Sudan. It is also now the country with the largest child displacement crisis in the world. ACLED estimates that more than 10,400 people have been killed since the fighting broke out in April, of which about 1,300 killings happened between 30 September and 27 October.


According to the International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix (IOM DTM) Sudan Response Situation Update, #32, about 5.1 million people have been displaced within Sudan. People have been displaced in 5,473 locations across all of Sudan’s 18 states, an increase of 161 locations in one week. Most of the displaced people have taken refuge in South Darfur (12.28 per cent), River Nile (11.99 per cent), East Darfur (10.59 per cent), White Nile (8.32 per cent), North Darfur (8.31 per cent), and Northern (7.09 per cent) states. According to IOM field teams, about 66.8 per cent of the displaced people (about 3.4 million people) are originally from Khartoum State. IOM also estimates that approximately 2.39 per cent of the people displaced within Sudan are non-Sudanese nationals.


In addition, about 1.2 million people crossed into neighbouring countries since 15 April, according to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR). People have crossed into neighbouring Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia and South Sudan.


Refugee update

Prior to the outbreak of the conflict in mid-April 2023 there were just under 1,445,000 refugees and asylum seekers in Sudan. Many of these were subsequently forced to move, following the conflict outbreak, to other areas within Sudan which were considered safer, while others crossed into neighbouring countries. UNHCR reports that between 15 April and 14 November, over 195,000 refugees have moved from conflict hotspots to safer areas in Sudan, of whom 70 per cent are children. The majority of refugees who have self-relocated have moved to White Nile (145,200), followed by Red Sea (16,000) and Gedaref (8,600), with the remainder spread across various states. South Sudanese refugees make up the majority of internal movements (161,200), followed by Ethiopian (6,700) and Eritrea refugees (5,000).


Refugee Consultation Forum (RCF) partners continue to deliver multi-sectoral assistance, prioritizing response for those living in camps. As of 31 October, about 848,100 refugees have been reached with at least one form of assistance. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services continue to be provided to ensure access to safe water in refugee camps and settlements, and protection response remains prioritized. Assistance also continues to be delivered in other sectors including education, food security and livelihoods (FSL), health, nutrition, and shelter and non-food items (S/NFIs).


Group of Sudanese and international civil groups sound alarm on atrocities in Sudan

On 15 November, 50 Sudanese and international civil society groups raised the alarm on future atrocities being committed in Sudan, based on the patterns of atrocities that have occurred in the previous seven months of war. They called on the international community to take decisive preventative action to prevent further atrocities from being perpetrated. These civic groups said they have evidence of crimes against humanity, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) being perpetrated against civilians during the conflict. They called on stakeholders to urgently act to ensure the parties to the conflict adhere to obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL), including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other treaties which Sudan is party to, commitments reflected in the Constitutional Declaration of 2019 and the Juba Peace Agreement of 2020 and commitments both parties made under the Jeddah Declaration of Commitment to Protect the Civilians of Sudan.


Spike in severe child rights violations in Darfur

Since the war broke out in April, over 3,130 allegations of severe child rights violations have been reported in the country, with the Darfur region bearing at least half of the cases, reports the UN Children’s Agency (UNICEF). Actual numbers are likely much higher. The number of severe child rights violations in Darfur has spiked 550 per cent compared to the verified number in all of 2022. The escalation of conflict in Darfur has exposed children to increased risks of recruitment, sexual violence, killing and maiming. Of all the killing and maiming incidents reported across Sudan, 51 per cent involve children in Darfur. In addition, 48 per cent of the total reported sexual violence cases in Sudan have occurred in Darfur, reports UNICEF.


Disease outbreaks continue to be reported across the country

The country is faced with several disease outbreaks including acute watery diarrhoea/cholera, measles, dengue, and malaria. 


An estimated 70 per cent of hospitals in states affected by conflict are not working, and the remaining ones are overwhelmed by the influx of people seeking care, many of whom are internally displaced, says the World Health Organization (WHO).


The number of suspected cases of acute watery diarrhoea/cholera continues to increase with cases now reported across eight states. Overall, 3,591 suspected cases (including 115 associated deaths and a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.2 per cent), have been reported as of 20 November, according to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) and WHO Outbreaks Dashboard


This includes 1,571 suspected cases of cholera and 44 associated deaths in Gedaref; 951 cases and 20 deaths in Aj Jazirah; 424 cases and 26 deaths in Khartoum; 346 cases and eight deaths in South Kordofan; 44 cases and three deaths in Kassala; 113 cases and five deaths in Red Sea; 30 cases and one death in Sennar; and 112 cases and eight deaths in White Nile.


The FMoH reports that the cumulative number of suspected measles cases has reached over 1,100 with active cases in Blue Nile, Aj Jazirah, Sennar and White Nile states, says UNICEF. For 2023, UNICEF targeted 1.7 million children to be vaccinated against measles. As of 31 October, UNICEF and partners were able to vaccinate 727,000 children—only 4 per cent of the target—of whom about 65,000 were vaccinated in October.


Viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) cases are increasing across the country with 5,077 cases and 25 associated deaths reported across three states as of 17 November, according to the FMoH and WHO. This includes 3,176 cases and two deaths in Khartoum; 1,881 cases and 23 deaths in Gedaref; and two cases in Aj Jazirah.


Ban on transportation of lifesaving surgical supplies to Khartoum puts hundreds at risk

On 14 November, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) called on Sudanese authorities to lift the 2 October ban blocking lifesaving surgical supplies from reaching hospitals serving people in areas of Khartoum that are under the control of the RSF, which is likely to cause the deaths of hundreds of patients. According to MSF, the policy is intended to prevent wounded opposition soldiers from receiving treatment however, it also prevents women and children from receiving lifesaving surgeries, including caesarean sections. MSF suspended surgical operations at Bashair Teaching Hospital in mid-October as a result of this ban and may soon have to suspend operations at the Turkish Hospital. Both hospitals are located in southern Khartoum city. Two-thirds of the surgeries carried out in the Turkish Hospital are caesarean sections, where in the past two months alone 170 such surgeries were carried out, without which many women and their newborn babies would have died. Women in labour needing C-sections already have very few options available to them in Khartoum.


The ban not only affects supplies but also the movement of personnel. Humanitarian workers—including medical staff—are also being denied travel permits. Not a single member of MSF's medical staff—Sudanese or foreign—has received authorization to travel to southern Khartoum for work since early October. MSF supplies and staff are ready and waiting in Wad Madani, less than 200 kilometres from Khartoum. If MSF is not able to bring in more supplies, the operating theatre in the Turkish Hospital will have to close its doors and women, children, and men in need of lifesaving surgery will be unable to receive treatment.


Conflict and impact on civilians

Conflict between SAF and RSF and inter-communal clashes in the Darfur and Kordofan regions have led to civilian deaths and displacement.


In South Darfur, inter-communal clashes renewed between Salamat and Habaniya tribesmen on 16 November in Buram locality, South Darfur State, reports IOM DTM. This follows previous clashes between the two tribes within the same locality on 11 November. The clashes took place across Nadhif and Marfaeina villages. As a result, 10 people were reportedly killed, an unconfirmed number of people were injured, and 40 people reportedly missing. IOM field teams report that about 30,000 people (6,000 families) have been displaced from the conflict areas to Buram town and surrounding villages as well as to As Sunta town in Sunta locality.


In North Darfur, inter-communal clashes erupted between the Zaghawa and Arab Abala tribesmen on 17 November in Rawuaina and Hela Esma villages of Dar As Salam locality, North Darfur State, reports IOM DTM. The incident reportedly occurred over a land dispute. As a result of the clashes, three people were reportedly killed and about 1,100 people were displaced to Abu Zeriga village in Dar As Salam locality, reports IOM DTM. The situation remains tense and unpredictable.


In North Kordofan State, five people were reportedly killed after armed clashes renewed on 13 November between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in El Obeid town, capital of North Kordofan State. Clashes were reported at the El Obeid military headquarters as well as in Al Safa and Al Matar neighbourhoods. No civilian displacement has been reported.


HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

An array of challenges - insecurity, looting, bureaucratic impediments, poor network and phone connectivity, lack of cash, and limited technical and humanitarian staff on the ground – have been affecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance in many parts of the country. Fuel shortages also affect the movement of humanitarian staff and supplies and the generation of power needed for operations (maintaining cold chain storage, supplying water, etc). Despite all these challenges, humanitarian partners continue to provide life-saving assistance to the vulnerable people they can reach.


During the June-September planting season, FAO distributed close to 10,000 metric tonnes (MT) of seeds to 1 million farming families – or 5 million people. According to a summer season assessment, the total planted area of all crops is estimated to be 15 per cent lower than the annual average during the summer season. In addition to the conflict being an impediment, farmers reported high agricultural input prices (seeds, tools) and a critical lack of inputs, finance and extension services as additional challenges.


On 14 November, 2.2 million doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) from the International Coordination Group on Vaccine Provision (ICG) Secretariat arrived in Port Sudan, with 652,000 more doses expected to be delivered on 20 November, WHO reported. Cholera vaccination campaigns will start in six localities in Gedaref State by the end of November, then in Aj Jazirah and Khartoum states targeting a total of 2.9 million people aged 1 year and above. As of 12 November, close to 3,000 suspected cases of cholera were reported from seven states, according to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) and WHO. In addition, 7.5 million doses of rubella and measles vaccines arrived in Port Sudan, according to UNICEF.


Overall, between April and 15 October 2023, 154 humanitarian partners reached about 4.5 million people with life-saving assistance, according to the latest Humanitarian Response Dashboard. In addition, 5.5 million people received livelihood assistance during the same period. Prior to the conflict, 2.7 million people were reached with life-saving assistance between January and March. This includes the provision of vital education, health, food, nutrition, water and protection assistance.


For more information on cluster-specific response see the latest Sudan Humanitarian Response Dashboard.


HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE PLAN FUNDING OVERVIEW
The revised 2023 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requires US$2.6 billion to provide life-saving multi-cluster and protection assistance to 18.1 million people in desperate need through the end of this year. According to the Financial Tracking Service, the appeal is only 34.5 per cent funded, with $883.9 million received as of 22 November, according to the Financial Tracking Service.

For previous humanitarian updates:


Read more: https://reports.unocha.org/en/country/sudan/card/2rMB59J8Gr/

Click here for the PDF


 [Ends]

Wednesday, November 22, 2023

South Sudan: Anglican Communion Sec-Gen Bishop Anthony Poggo calls for peace, free and fair elections

THE Secretary General of the Anglican Communion Bishop Anthony Poggo is visiting South Sudan with a delegation of church leaders from England on Monday. Read more in the following report.
 
From Radio Tamazuj - radiotamazuj.org/en
Dated Wednesday, 22 November 2023 - here is a copy in full:

Anglican Communion Secretary General calls for peace, free and fair elections

Secretary General of the Anglican Communion Bishop Anthony Poggo. (Photo: Radio Tamazuj)


(Juba City - 22 Nov 2023) - The Secretary General of the Anglican Communion who is visiting South Sudan with a delegation of church leaders from England on Monday reiterated the Canterbury’s commitment towards consolidating sustainable peace and reconciliation to fast-track the realization of free, fair, and credible elections next year.


Speaking to the press, Bishop Anthony Poggo, said he paid a courtesy call to Central Equatoria State Governor Emmanuel Adil to brief him about his visit and to discuss the impact of the joint visit of Pope Francis, Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby and Moderator of the Church of Scotland Iain Greenshields.


“It is a courtesy call to brief him on our visit to the country. We discussed the impact the joint visit of the Pope, Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Moderator of the Church of Scotland had on the country,” he stated. “We also wanted to hear from him how things are, the state of affairs in his state, and also the preparations for elections,” he stated “This is an important step because we want to continue to support this country in prayer.”


“The Anglican Communion continues to follow what is happening in South Sudan as our desire is for peace to prevail but also for peaceful, fair elections to happen in this country,” Bishop Poggo added.


For his part, Derick Derickson, the spokesperson in the office of the Governor of Central Equatoria State, said Governor Adil appreciated the role the vital and tireless role the Anglican Communion plays in making sure there is sustainable peace in South Sudan.


‘’The governor commended the tremendous role that the Anglican Communion and church organizations are playing in the country as per propagating messages for peace and unity and reaffirmed his government’s commitment to work together with the religious leaders for the development of the country,” he said.  About the fourth coming elections, the governor also reiterated the need for the religious leaders to continue supporting the government in its preparatory efforts.”


Bishop Poggo who traveled from Canterbury in the United Kingdom was accompanied by key members of the Anglican Communion ahead of the Episcopal Church of South Sudan (ECSS) House of Bishops meeting expected to start later this week.

 

View original: https://radiotamazuj.org/en/news/article/anglican-communion-secretary-general-calls-for-peace-free-and-fair-elections


[Ends]

South Sudan: Over 69,000 pupils across the country started sitting for Certificate of Primary Education

NOTE that the students started the first exams with Christian Religious Education and Islamic Religious Education. On Tuesday, they will be examined in Social Studies, on Wednesday, English Language, on Thursday, and Sciences, and finally Mathematics on Friday. Read more.

Report from Radio Tamazuj, Juba City - radiotamazuj.org/en
Dated Monday, 20 November 2023 - here is a copy in full:

Certificate of Primary Education Examinations kickoff across the country

Pupils sitting examinations at Buluk Primary School in Juba. 
(Photo: Radio Tamazuj)


Over 69,000 pupils on Monday started sitting for the Certificate of Primary Education across the country.


Speaking during the start of the exams at Buluk Primary School in Juba, Martin Tako Moyi, the Deputy Minister of General Education and Instruction, said they have tried their best to deliver the examination papers to all centers across the country under very difficult circumstances.


He revealed that they fell short of delivering the examinations to one center in Uror County in Jonglei State where planes could not land and that 24 candidates there will miss the exams.


“God granted us success with only one center in Jonglei State, the center in Uror County with 24 candidates missing because it proved beyond our control,” he said. “The plane went several times but they could not find a place to land because the whole area is submerged in water.”


The minister warned candidates against examination malpractice, saying any school or students found in the act would have their results nullified.


“I also appeal to you to avoid malpractices. Do not copy from anybody, and do not do anything that is not acceptable because we do not want to cancel the results of any school. Any malpractice or anything you try to copy will be nullified and the consequence will not only to you but your family who prepared you, your teachers who prepared you for eight years to come and sit,” Tako stressed. 


“I also appeal to invigilators, security personnel, staff, and others that they should not temper with anything. Do not help students cheat because you will be destroying this country. We want everything to go as arranged so that we produce clean results.”


For his part, Vice President Hussein Abdelbagi Akol lauded the efforts of the Ministry of Education in making sure that this year’s examination is conducted by the academic calendar.


“This particular day would not have been possible without the tireless efforts of the Ministry of General Education,” he said. “I therefore, in a special way, wish to congratulate the Minister of General Education and the entire staff for their commitment and dedication to ensure that the Primary Leaving Examination 2023 is conducted within the specified calendar despite the numerous challenges.”


The vice president also warned against examination malpractices, saying it has threatened the credibility of South Sudan`s education system.


“In the recent past, our examination system and by extension, the education system was under serious credibility threats. Cheating in exams and other malpractices had taken root and slowly becoming the norm. I am happy that the Ministry of General Education last year tried to put mechanisms in place to rout out this backward practice with great success,” he said. 


“In this regard, I call upon the teachers or supervisors to put in place stringent measures to ensure that the success achieved so far in primary examination administration is sustained so that our certificates can be respected and honored in the neighboring region and beyond.”


Speaking to Radio Tamazuj at the examination center in Buluk, Ahmed Jidu Khamis, an adult pupil living with a disability and sitting the examination under the accelerated learning program, said he is not just sitting for the exams for the sake of the certificate but wants to encourage the young people to enroll in school.   


“Today I came for the primary leaving exams not to get the certificate to find a job but to encourage the youths to study,” he stated. “I am now old I want to be a role model to everybody because I am unable to walk but want to continue with my education.”


Another candidate from the Accelerated Learning Program and a mother of three, Aker Teng, said she decided to enroll in school to learn English because she initially studied in Arabic.


“I come from an Arabic language background and finding a job has been a very challenge for me. I have tried several courses but in the end, I decided to enroll in school. I have been facing a challenge because people believe that people from an Arabic language background cannot do anything. Earlier on, I sat for Primary Leaving Exams in Khartoum and scored 52 percent,” she revealed. 


“I encourage people, especially women who are victims of early marriage, to enroll in adult education. They should be encouraged to study. I also encourage all parents to send their girls to school because if you educate women, you educate the nation.”


Another candidate, Dominic Simon, who suffers from hearing impairment and spoke through a sign language interpreter, said he was ready to sit the examinations although he faced challenges during learning due to a lack of sign language translators.


“In school, we had some challenges but here we are ready to start the examinations. We people living with disabilities have no jobs but we struggle hard to learn because school is for everybody. We have the opportunity to go to school,” he said. 


“We have communication barriers because sometimes the teachers just enter the class and start teaching without interpreting their lessons. We want interpreters of sign language so that we learn inclusively.”


According to the Ministry of Education, a total of 69,573 candidates, including 38,575 males and 30,998 females, have duly registered for the examinations in 1,665 schools and 551 centers.


The students started the first exams with Christian Religious Education and Islamic Religious Education. On Tuesday, they will be examined in Social Studies, on Wednesday, English Language, on Thursday, and Sciences, and finally Mathematics on Friday. 

 

View original: https://radiotamazuj.org/en/news/article/certificate-of-primary-education-examinations-kickoff-across-the-country


[Ends]