Monday, August 28, 2023

Sudan Climate Change: Root causes of Darfur conflict

NOTE from Sudan Watch Editor: Taking time out to search Sudan Watch's archives and collate various posts from the past 20 years. They are taking hours to find and prepare for a series of posts focussing on peace and the alleviation of poverty and extreme poverty in Sudan and South Sudan.

To start, here is an excerpt from a post published July 14, 2006 entitled:

'The root causes of the Darfur conflict: A struggle over controlling an environment that can no longer support all the people who must live on it'


Environmentalist Wangari Maathai who won the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize stated to The Washington Post on May 12, 2005 that:

"Darfur is an example of a situation where a dire scarcity of natural resources is manipulated by politicians for their own ambition. To outsiders, the conflict is seen as tribal warfare. At its roots, though, it is a struggle over controlling an environment that can no longer support all the people who must live on it. You must not deal only with the symptoms you have to get to the root causes by promoting environmental rehablitation and empowering people to do things for themselves. What is done for the people without involving them can not be sustained."

Full story:


Saturday, August 26, 2023

Sudan and South Sudan: Peace and Climate Change

  • The peace needs to be rewritten to include provisions for all tribes to address what they were fighting over to begin with. 
  • Famine relief needs to be supported by all western world countries, especially those who are the largest contributors to global warming. 
  • The conflict in Sudan's arid west can be traced to severe drought and population growth in the 1980s that sparked a struggle between settled farmers and pastoralists.
  • In Darfur there is a massive ecological and demographic challenge exacerbated by climate change.
  • There's not a chance in the world for Darfur to be peaceful unless a solution is found to water stress. 

Read more in these two posts from Sudan Watch archive 2006:

Climate Change and Darfur 

Note this gem, by an insightful blogger at dishyduds blogspot re "Climate Change and Darfur":

"I now believe that the United States has a moral obligation to alleviate the struggles in Africa. It is our responsibility because we are the largest contributors to the root of the problem. I no longer support a UN military presence. Peace cannot be forced, and military action would only act as a band-aid on a seeping infected wound. The root cause needs to be addressed and the United States needs to lead as we had a hand in creating the problem. The peace needs to be rewritten to include provisions for all tribes to address what they were fighting over to begin with. Famine relief needs to be supported by all western world countries, especially those who are the largest contributors to global warming." 


Related report

Sudan Watch - July 17, 2006 

Darfur Peace Must Address Water Crisis: Economist - excerpt:

The conflict in Sudan's arid west is often attributed to political and ethnic grievances, Jeffrey Sachs, director of Columbia University's Earth Institute, told a climate change conference.

But he said its origins can be traced to severe drought and population growth in the 1980s that sparked a struggle between settled farmers and pastoralists.

"(In Darfur) we need to understand that, at the core, there is a massive ecological and demographic challenge exacerbated by climate change," Sachs said.

"I would say there's not a chance in the world for Darfur to be peaceful unless a solution is found to water stress." 

Full story:


Friday, August 25, 2023

War and hunger could destroy Sudan -UN aid chief

Statement by UN aid chief Martin Griffiths
Published by United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) -
Dated Friday 25 August 2023 - here is a full copy:

War and hunger could destroy Sudan - Statement by Martin Griffiths, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator [EN/AR]

(New York, 25 August 2023): The war in Sudan is fueling a humanitarian emergency of epic proportions. This viral conflict – and the hunger, disease and displacement left in its wake – now threatens to consume the entire country.

The intense fighting that has ravaged the capital Khartoum and Darfur since mid-April has spread to Kordofan. In South Kordofan’s capital, Kadugli, food stocks have been fully depleted, as clashes and road blockages prevent aid workers from reaching the hungry. In West Kordofan’s capital, El Fula, humanitarian offices have been ransacked and supplies looted. I am also extremely worried about the safety of civilians in Al Jazira State, as the conflict moves closer to Sudan’s breadbasket.

The longer the fighting continues, the more devastating its impact. Some places have already run out of food. Hundreds of thousands of children are severely malnourished and at imminent risk of death if left untreated.

Vector-borne diseases are spreading, posing a lethal risk, especially to those already weakened by malnutrition. Cases of measles, malaria, whooping cough, dengue fever, and acute watery diarrhoea are being reported across the country. Most people have no access to medical treatment. The conflict has decimated the health care sector, with most hospitals out of service.

Millions of people have been displaced inside Sudan. Nearly one million others have fled across its borders. As more refugees arrive in neighbouring countries, host communities are struggling. A protracted conflict in Sudan could tip the entire region into a humanitarian catastrophe.

A long conflict will almost certainly lead to a lost generation of children as millions miss out on education, endure trauma, and bear the physical and psychological scars of war. Reports that some children in Sudan are being used in the fighting are deeply disturbing.

It is well past time for all those fighting in this conflict to put the people of Sudan above the pursuit of power or resources. Humanity must prevail. Civilians need life-saving assistance now; humanitarians need access and funding to deliver it. The international community needs to respond with the urgency this crisis deserves.

25 August 2023

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Martin Griffiths is a British diplomat who currently serves as Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator at the United Nations. -Wikipedia


Thursday, August 24, 2023

UK is sending Darfur Sudan war crimes evidence to UN Security Council, UN Human Rights Council & ICC

UK is penholder on Sudan file at UN Security Council. The ICC launched a new investigation into alleged war crimes in Sudan in July with ICC chief prosecutor Karim Khan saying “we are in the midst of a human catastrophe”.

Read more in a report at the Guardian
By Patrick Wintour Diplomatic Editor
Dated Tue 22 Aug 2023 17.25 BST; Last modified 17.59 BST - full copy:

War crimes being committed in Darfur, says UK minister Andrew Mitchell

Africa minister says civilian death toll horrific and UK is to send evidence to UN

Sudanese people fleeing the conflict in Darfur cross the border between Sudan and Chad in Adre. Photograph: Zohra Bensemra/Reuters

War crimes and atrocities against civilians are being committed in Darfur, western Sudan, the UK’s Africa minister Andrew Mitchell said on Tuesday, becoming one of the first western officials to identify that the fighting in Sudan has developed into more than a power struggle between two rival factions.

Mitchell said there was growing evidence of serious atrocities being committed, describing the civilian death toll as horrific in a statement released by the Foreign Office. “Reports of deliberate targeting and mass displacement of the Masalit community in Darfur are particularly shocking and abhorrent. Intentional directing of attacks at the civilian population is a war crime.”

He added the UK would do all it could to assemble credible evidence to present to the UN security council, the UN Human Rights Council and the international criminal court.

There had been an expectation that the US would have explicitly joined the UK in making a formal atrocity determination, but so far the State Department has held off, partly because the US does not want to jeopardise talks in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, designed to end the civil war between Sudanese Armed Forces and the independent Rapid Support Forces (RSF).

Observers claim the larger power struggle that broke out in April, with fighting in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, has provided cover for RSF allied forces to undertake ethnic cleansing in west Darfur, reviving memories of the genocide committed in Darfur 20 years ago.

The attacks on the Masalit and other ethnic communities are led by the Janjaweed militias allied with the RSF. The RSF is commanded by Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo.

More than 300,000 Sudanese nationals have crossed the border into neighbouring Chad since the conflict broke out, according to the UN’s migratory agency.

Africa minister Andrew Mitchell is one of the first western officials to identify that the fighting in Sudan is more than a struggle between two factions. Photograph: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images Photograph: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images

Kate Ferguson, co-executive director of the human rights NGO Protection Approaches, welcomed Mitchell’s statement saying: “He is absolutely right to condemn not only the armed conflict between the SAF and RSF which is devastating Sudan but also to highlight the deliberate targeting and mass displacement of non-Arab communities in Darfur.

“These two related but distinct trajectories of violence require related but distinct solutions; this reality must be a cornerstone for the UK government and the entire international system in the pursuit of peace in Sudan.

The Saudi peace talks rely on progress being made between different bad faith actors over which Riyadh seems to have little leverage. Others say the true external players in Sudan are Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, which are closely linked to the SAF and RSF respectively.

The ICC launched a new investigation into alleged war crimes in Sudan in July with ICC chief prosecutor Karim Khan saying “we are in the midst of a human catastrophe”.

The UK has imposed sanctions on businesses linked to the RSF and the Sudanese Armed Forces in an effort to register its disapproval.

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Is Sudan's Ministry of Health working? Women’s vigil in North Darfur capital decries healthcare collapse

NOTE from Sudan Watch Editor: Why can't urgent medical supplies be dropped by air? Planes are used in Australia's outback to provide medical services. Billions have been raked into the coffers of the UN and countless charities to help the most vulnerable and needy in Sudan and South Sudan. The belligerents need medical aid too. What is Sudan's Ministry of Health doing? Why can't it and the UN track and coordinate where supplies are needed and get them delivered by any means possible as soon as possible? 

Dated 18 August 2023 - here is a full copy:
Report at Radio Dabanga

Women’s vigil in North Darfur capital decries healthcare collapse

Vigil by women activists in El Fasher on Thursday (Photo: RD)

Women’s activists organised a vigil in the North Darfur capital, El Fasher, on Thursday to protest the deteriorating healthcare conditions, and what they called the failure of the Ministry of Health and the state government to support the Specialised Maternity Hospital. 

Shortages of medicines and equipment at hospitals has become a country-wide crisis, as logistics, supply, and power outages stress facilities beyond their limits.

The participants in Thursday’s vigil told Radio Dabanga of their dissatisfaction at the facilities at the specialised obstetrics and gynaecology hospital, which is the main reference hospital, and the only one of its kind in the state. They lament that “the hospital lacks even the simplest equipment to provide treatment in the fields of obstetrics and gynaecology.” they say, “which has resulted in the deaths of a large number of mothers and newborns”.

The medical staff lack essentials such as surgical gloves and blood for transfusion, the activists say. The electricity supply is subject to frequent outages, and “for the past four months, the hospital has relied entirely on initiatives by public volunteers and the support committee”.

The vigil appealed to the state government and the Ministry of Health to pay urgent attention to the conditions at the hospital, as they fear ”the situation may collapse”.

The protesters decried the murders, rapes, and kidnappings in North Darfur state, pointing to the deteriorating conditions of women in various fields. “Women are subject to continuous violations in the centres and neighbourhoods.”

Activist Asmaa El Nour, one of the participants in the vigil, told Radio Dabanga that the vigil demanded the provision of necessary medicines to save women’s lives, especially at the specialised hospital for obstetrics and gynaecology in El Fasher, and criticised the state health ministry’s failure in doing its part.

National crisis

Earlier this month, Dabanga reported that blood transfusion bags, anaesthesia, gauze, solutions, and suture threads are among the medical supplies that are in critically short supply in the South Darfur capital of Nyala, as medical facilities are swamped with an influx of conflict-related cases. Health care in South Kordofan is suffering from a shortage of medicines.

The Children’s Hospital in El Gedaref, eastern Sudan, recorded figures of 132 children who died as a result of a surge in malnutrition-related diseases. According to recent reports, there has been a marked increase in the number of disease cases and fatalities, notably within camps providing shelter to those uprooted by the conflict in Khartoum. From April to July, the Children’s Hospital documented a total of 365 malnutrition cases, which they state, translates to a 20 per cent mortality rate among afflicted children. 

The monthly death toll saw 33 casualties in April, followed by 41 in May, 24 in June, and another 34 in July.

Apart from massive logistical challenges to distribute vital equipment and medicines brought about by the war, a lack of fuel means that hospitals cannot always run generators to power equipment. As reported by Dabanga this week, a kidney failure patient died in Port Sudan, after a dialysis centre was struck by a power outage.

Compounded with the scarcity of essential medical supplies required to provide adequate care for over 360 patients, among whom at least 100 have been uprooted from Khartoum due to the destructive clashes that ravaged the capital’s healthcare infrastructure.

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Sudan fighting takes toll on people in south Khartoum

THANKS to Radio Dabanga for spotting this tweet by RSF Sudan @MSF_Sudan 3:15 PM Aug 22, 2023. The tweet says: Intense fighting is taking a heavy toll on people in south #Khartoum. On Sunday, #Bashair Hospital received 111 emergency cases & did 25 life-saving surgeries. Monday, the team saw 91 patients & performed 21 surgical procedures. The fighting and influx of patients are ongoing. Read more of the story at Radio Dabanga 23 Aug 2023 report - excerpt: 

"Listeners told Radio Dabanga that the neighbourhoods in old Omdurman and many parts of southern Khartoum “have almost become devoid of residents”.

A resident from the densely populated El Kalaklat neighbourhoods reported “a large exodus” from the areas adjacent to the El Shajara military area towards El Kalaklat and further south, to Jebel Aulia. “Many are heading towards White Nile state to escape the hell of the battles.”

Many explosions were heard coming from the El Shajara area, with warplanes continuously flying over, he said, and added that an army convoy en route from Jebel Aulia towards to El Shajara, clashed with an RSF force coming from the Teiba camp."


Wednesday, August 23, 2023

Sudan: 4.5M displaced, 76% of IDPs from Khartoum, SAF & RSF clashes in Nyala S. Darfur displaced 50K

'OCHA Sudan: Humanitarian Update 23 August 2023' - here is a full copy:


• More than 4.5 million people have been displaced inside and outside Sudan due to the conflict that erupted on 15 April between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF).

• Nearly 76 per cent of the people internally displaced are from Khartoum.

• Recent clashes between the SAF and RSF in Nyala, South Darfur, have displaced an estimated 50,000 people.

• Measles, whooping cough, acute watery diarrhoea, dengue fever and malaria have been reported in various states.

• More than 33,000 people have been affected by torrential rains in Northern State.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE (1 hour ago) [23 Aug 2023 17:00 BST]

Sudan Humanitarian Update (23 August 2023)


As the conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) continues across the country, civilian displacement and humanitarian needs continue to steadily increase.

To date, more than 4.5 million people have been displaced inside and outside the country due to the conflict that erupted on 15 April. More than 3.6 million people have been displaced internally as of 22 August, according to the International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix (IOM DTM). People have been displaced across all 18 states. The majority are in River Nile, Northern, East Darfur, Sennar and White Nile states. Nearly 76 per cent of internally displaced people (IDPs) are originally from Khartoum. In addition, more than 947,000 people have crossed the border into neighbouring countries as of 21 August, including Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia and South Sudan, according to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR).

At least 498 children in Sudan, and likely hundreds more, have died from hunger, including two dozen babies in a state orphanage, as critical services run out of food or close, according to a recent statement by the international NGO Save the Children (SC). Since the start of the conflict in mid-April, SC has been forced to close 57 nutrition facilities, leaving 31,000 children across the country without treatment for malnutrition and related illnesses. In the remaining 108 facilities that are still operational, therapeutic food stocks are running critically low. In May, Sudan's only factory for manufacturing "Plumpy'Nut", key to treating malnutrition in children, was burned to the ground. The factory had been producing around 10,000 tons of Plumpy’Nut paste every year, which was used by aid agencies such as SC, the World Food Programme (WFP) and UNICEF. Even before the conflict, existing stocks in the country were nearly exhausted and could not be restocked due to funding shortages.

In Gedaref State, SC reported that at least 132 children died from malnutrition between April and July, 36 per cent of whom were admitted to one state hospital. The hospital has reported a significant increase in cases of malnutrition, especially among children recently displaced from Khartoum and living in squalid camps. In White Nile State, at least 316 children, mostly under the age of five, died from malnutrition or associated illnesses between May and July, and more than 2,400 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) – the deadliest form of malnutrition – were admitted to nutrition facilities since the beginning of the year.

An estimated 50,000 people (10,000 families) were displaced by renewed clashes between the SAF and RSF from 11 to 17 August in Nyala Town, the state capital of South Darfur State, according to IOM DTM. People fled their homes in Al-Mazad, Tayba, Seka Hadeed, Al-Jabal, Neil, Karrari, Musa and Texas neighbourhoods to Hai Al-Jeer, Al-Nahda, As Salam, Derwa and Kangho neighbourhoods within the town. Others took refuge in As Salam, Al Serief, Otash and Kalma displacement camps, with additional people fleeing to Tulus, Buram, As Salam and Damso localities. There are also reports of people arriving in Shia'ria locality and Ad Du’ayn Town in East Darfur and in Al Fasher Town in North Darfur. At least 60 people have been killed and 250 others injured during the fighting, according to IOM. Staff at the Turkish Hospital – which is already understaffed – are reportedly struggling to cope with the influx of wounded people, and humanitarian partners on the ground report that medical supplies are running low. Gathering information from Nyala Town in recent days has been challenging, as communication towers have reportedly been damaged during the fighting, and the electricity and water systems in the town are no longer functioning.

Clashes between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) Al Hilu faction and SAF continue to be reported in South Kordofan. On 14 August, clashes took place in Kadugli Town, the state capital of South Kordofan State, reportedly forcing at least 6,700 people to flee to neighbourhoods in the west of the town, according to the government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) in South Kordofan. This number has yet to be verified. During the clashes, two humanitarian compounds and many public buildings were hit by stray bullets. Humanitarian staff have been advised to restrict their movements in Kadugli Town. Due to the insecurity, aid workers travelling from other areas are not able to reach the town. Humanitarian food stocks in Kadugli Town have been depleted, and attempts to bring in more supplies have failed due to insecurity along the road from Dilling to Kadugli and due to the blocking of the road into the town by the SPLM-N. The last food distributions for three months were in May and will last families until the end of this month. Other humanitarian stocks in Kadugli, especially health and nutrition supplies, are also running low. Fighting between the SPLM-N Al Hilu faction and SAF has been ongoing and escalating in the state since 17 June. To date, nine out of 17 localities have been affected by the clashes, resulting in the displacement of more than 69,400 people.

Climate change has made Northern State very vulnerable to torrential rains and flash flooding. On 5 August, heavy rainfall affected six out of the seven localities in the state, including Merowe, Al Golid, Ad Dabbah, Dongola, Al Burgaig and Halfa. According to the HAC in Northern State, about 6,670 families (some 33,400 people) were affected by heavy rains, storms and flash flooding. About 1,580 homes were destroyed, 5,090 homes were damaged, 59 public facilities were affected, and 4,672 latrines were either destroyed or damaged.

So far, the HAC has distributed 20 tents, 40 blankets, 50 sleeping mats and 50 plastic sheets, while the Civil Defence has distributed 20 plastic sheets. The Zakat Chamber provided 100 bags of flour and some cash. The Ministry of Investment provided oil, and the Sudanese Red Crescent Society (SRCS) provided 150 blankets, 50 plastic sheets and 30 kitchen sets. Humanitarian partners need additional supplies to support those affected by the heavy rains and flooding. Outstanding needs include emergency shelter and non-food item (NFI) kits for 3,000 people; tools and equipment for vector control, as vector-borne diseases increase during the rainy season; 20,000 chlorine tablets for water purification; 100,000 plastic sacks; 50 water pumps; 100 first aid kits; 3,000 hygiene kits; and 3,000 mosquito nets.

The Health Cluster has reported suspected measles outbreaks in White Nile, Blue Nile, Gedaref, Kassala, Aj Jazirah, West Kordofan, River Nile, North Darfur and Red Sea states. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported 3,046 suspected measles cases, with 84 associated deaths. Most of the cases are from White Nile and Blue Nile states. In White Nile, health partners are meeting weekly to update and monitor the response, and a vaccination campaign for children under five years of age is planned. The Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) has reported 16 cases of suspected pertussis (whooping cough) in River Nile, Kassala and Red Sea states. In South Kordofan, 308 acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases and seven related deaths have been reported by health partners, while 23,743 AWD cases have been reported in Blue Nile, White Nile, Red Sea, Kassala and Gedaref States. In Red Sea State, 11 dengue fever cases have been confirmed. In Blue Nile, River Nile, White Nile, South and North Darfur, Red Sea, Kassala and Aj Jazirah states, 280,965 clinical cases of malaria and three associated deaths have been reported. In Port Sudan, 50 heat stroke cases, including 13 associated deaths, have been reported.

Trucks loaded with nutrition, health, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) supplies destined for Nyala Town have remained in Ad Du'ayn Town, the capital of East Darfur, since 14 August due to the fighting, and planned distributions by the UN Children’s Agency (UNICEF) have been postponed. There are concerns that continued fighting will cause the already precarious humanitarian situation in the state to deteriorate and heighten the health, nutrition, sanitation and food security needs of the vulnerable. Meanwhile, some areas could become inaccessible if roads become impassable during the ongoing rainy season.


The spread of active conflict and armed clashes across Sudan, combined with impediments and obstacles faced by aid organizations, have continued to impact humanitarian access. A total of 865 access incidents have been reported since 15 April, of which over a third were due to active hostilities impeding relief operations. The highest number of incidents was recorded in Khartoum. A total of 220 visa applications are still pending, limiting the ability of aid organizations to scale up the response. Meanwhile, travel permits required for in-country movements are time-consuming to obtain and ultimately delay access to locations outside Port Sudan, particularly hard-to-reach areas such as Khartoum and the Darfur region. 

The looting of aid facilities, warehouses and supplies continues to pose a major challenge to the humanitarian response, diminishing stocks and equipment and resulting in delays in the delivery of life-saving assistance. A total of 19 aid workers have been killed in Sudan since 15 April. At least 26 aid workers have been detained since mid-April, and many others report having faced attempts of forced recruitment by armed groups. Looting represents almost a third of all access-related incidents. In June and July, 15 warehouses, 11 offices and 43 vehicles were looted. This brings the total to 50 warehouses, 83 offices and 202 vehicles since the conflict began. Looting of medical supplies, food stores and nutrition supplies has put millions of people at increased risk of acute malnutrition and even starvation. Under international humanitarian law (IHL), all humanitarian facilities must be afforded full protection from attacks and looting during conflict.

Despite these ongoing challenges, access and civil-military coordination efforts have enabled the movement of relief items on the ground. A total of 683 trucks carried over 31,000 metric tons (MT) of relief items to people in need across 13 states in Sudan in June and July, bringing the total cumulative amount delivered to over 71,000 MT since 22 May. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) deconfliction and access negotiation system has allowed partners to deliver relief items to Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, South Kordofan, West Kordofan and White Nile. Significantly, in July, 13 new localities were reached for the first time since 15 April through the OCHA-led Humanitarian Information Sharing Mechanism, through which the location of humanitarian sites and facilities are communicated to parties to the conflict. Cross-border assistance continues from Egypt and Ethiopia, and a scale-up in assistance from Chad into Darfur is expected in the coming weeks. Full details on humanitarian access are available on the Humanitarian Access Situation Report (June to July 2023)


The majority of people internally displaced across the country due to the conflict are from Khartoum State. IOM estimates that more than 2.7 million people fled their homes in Khartoum to other locations within the state or to other states. An estimated 40,225 people (about 1.47 per cent of the people displaced from the state) are currently displaced within Khartoum and have taken refuge within the localities of Bahri, Jebel Awlia, Karrari, Khartoum, Sharg An Neel, Um Bada and Um Durman, as of 22 August. About 64 per cent of internally displaced people (IDPs) are living with relatives; the rest have rented accommodations.

River Nile State hosts the highest number of displaced people within Sudan. More than 510,000 people (14 per cent of all people internally displaced) have taken refuge in 244 locations across Abu Hamad, Ad Damar, Al Buhaira, Al Matama, Atbara, Barbar and Shendi localities. About 77 per cent of the displaced people are living with relatives, 15.75 per cent have rented accommodations, 4 per cent have taken refuge in schools and public buildings, and 2.4 per cent have taken refuge in improvised shelters.

In Northern State, IOM reports that 362,946 people fleeing the conflict between SAF and RSF have taken refuge in 234 locations across the state as of 22 August. All of the newly displaced people in Northern State have arrived from Khartoum, fleeing fighting between the SAF and RSF, and have taken refuge in Ad Dabbah, Al Burgaig, Al Golid, Delgo, Dongola, Halfa and Merowe localities. About 81 per cent of the displaced people are living with relatives, 10 per cent have taken refuge in schools and public buildings, and about 9 per cent have rented accommodations.

Due to increasing humanitarian needs in the state, coordinated humanitarian assistance is needed. To ensure this, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) held an orientation session for line ministries and humanitarian actors in the state on 17 August on the establishment of an area humanitarian country team (A/HCT), an area inter-agency cluster coordination group (A/ICCG), and a cluster system in the state. It was agreed to establish both the A/HCT and A/ICCG groups and hold regular meetings, and to establish a cluster system starting with health, education, agriculture, WASH, and protection – including child protection and gender-based violence (GBV). OCHA will train staff from the government HAC in Northern State and partners in the state on the operation of these coordination structures.

IOM estimates that more than 36,000 people have taken refuge in schools and other public buildings. State authorities have allocated spaces where shelters can be built to house IDPs and requested UNHCR’s help in building the shelters ahead of the winter season, which is fast approaching. UNHCR, in collaboration with HAC in Northern State, has distributed the full package of NFIs to 218 families, benefitting about 1,100 people in seven gathering sites.

Humanitarian workers are facing several gaps and challenges in responding to the needs of displaced people in Northern State. There are insufficient nutrition services and supplies for children and nursing mothers and a lack of ambulance services for referrals, amid high transportation costs. Displaced people at gathering sites also have little food, and there are not enough hygiene promotion activities. Services catering to children and people with special needs are also lacking. Humanitarian partners do not have adequate funds to respond to the needs of people affected by flooding in six localities in the state. There is also a limited number of partners on the ground, and these partners lack resources for the response. There are further difficulties in identifying and registering displaced people living with families or who have rented accommodations. Meanwhile, communications connectivity is poor.


Delivering humanitarian assistance has been challenged by insecurity, looting and bureaucratic impediments. Despite these issues, 100 humanitarian partners reached about 2.9 million people with life-saving assistance between April and July 2023. This includes vital education, health, food, nutrition, water and protection assistance. Before the conflict, 2.7 million people were reached with humanitarian assistance between January and March.

Since the start of the crisis in mid-April, WFP has provided in-kind food assistance to 1.8 million people across 15 states of Sudan’s 18 states. In July, more than 632,000 people received food assistance in Blue Nile, East Darfur, Gedaref, Aj Jazirah, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, South Kordofan and White Nile states. However, access constraints – particularly in Darfur states, where violence is escalating – are hindering food distributions. Due to increased food needs, WFP plans to provide food assistance to 6.3 million people by the end of the year, an increase from the agency’s previous target of 5.9 million. The assistance will provide 262,000 children up to five years of age and pregnant and nursing women with nutrition assistance, and more than 635,000 people with malnutrition prevention activities. To achieve this, WFP is collaborating with UNICEF and other organizations to expand the delivery of nutrition support and assistance across vulnerable regions and augment capacity and implementation on the ground. As of July, WFP has reached about 49,500 children and pregnant and nursing women with malnutrition prevention activities. To sustain operations across the country, WFP in Sudan urgently requires US $367 million until January 2024.


Humanitarian partners urgently require additional resources to scale up relief efforts across Sudan. The revised Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requires US$2.6 billion to provide life-saving multi-sectoral assistance and protection services to 18.1 million people through the end of this year. To date, the appeal is only 25.7 per cent is funded, with $658.4 million received as of 23 August, according to the Financial Tracking Service.

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