Sunday, April 21, 2019

History of coups in Khartoum Sudan (Alex de Waal)

HERE below is a funny, fascinating potted history of 14 coups in Sudan, including the latest, written by Africa specialist Dr. Alex de Waal. It's a must-read. The essay is full of interesting details bringing its readers up to date with what is happening in Sudan right now: Sudan “is poised between an inspirational transformation and dangerous disorder. Sudan’s democratic moment is still desperately fragile”. 

After reading the essay, and going by the last 16 years here at Sudan Watch and miles of reports, I’ll be surprised if Sudan suddenly becomes a stable democracy, I fear there are too many violent opportunistic factions involved, all vying for power (click here to read UN Security Council briefing on Sudan 07 Feb 2019)

Also, South Sudan is still in turmoil, parts of its border still being negotiated, poor people in South Sudan still suffering much grief and hardship, not a lot has changed for the better since the country gained independence from Sudan in 2011 (click here to read UN Security Council briefing on South Sudan 14 Mar 2019).

While reading today's news about Sudanese protestors staging a sit-in in Khartoum to demand civilian rule, I thought of the violence gripping Libya ever since its strongman leader Muammer Gaddafi (07 Jun 1942 - 20 Oct 2011) was horrifically murdered in Libya by his people (click here to read UN Security Council briefing on Libya 05 Apr 2019).

And the violence continuing in Iraq ever since its strongman leader Saddam Hussein (28 Apr 1937 - 30 Dec 2006) was returned to Iraq by the US and hanged by his people (click here to read UN Security Council briefing on Iraq 03 Dec 2019)

Maybe that is why Sudan's strongman leader Omar al-Bashir is now, reportedly, being held in a high security prison in Sudan's capital of Khartoum, to save him from facing the same fate as Messrs Gaddafi and Hussein.

On a lighter note, while reading the essay, I laughed at the coupists commandeering a train to storm Khartoum only to find themselves shunted into a siding by an unwitting signalman. Also, the story of a failed coup launched mid-afternoon while government officials were asleep during a customary nap. And a failed coupist who left Sudan for Ireland and shortly after having a great idea to write a cartoon history of coups in Sudan was hit and killed by a car in London’s Euston Road while rushing to join an opposition meeting! Note that the 1989 Islamist coup was notable in part because Omar al-Bashir and his fellow rebels were stone cold sober.

Sorry for laughing at such deadly matters. Over the years I've noticed that the Sudanese know how to party and have a good time. They’ll start a party from nothing, over anything. I find them endearing, they make me smile. Ugandans, Kenyans, Egyptians and Indians too. Their humour is so British, like it’s woven into their culture. Here’s the story of 14 coups in Sudan by Alex de Waal, and my postscript about Hergé’s famously funny Tintin. Enjoy! (Thanks Alex!)

Sudan after Bashir
From London Review of Books blog
By Alex de Waal
Thursday 18 April 2019

On the morning of Thursday 11 April, the Sudanese army announced that they would shortly be making an announcement. Radio and TV were already broadcasting ominous martial music. Tens of thousands of protesters, massed outside the Ministry of Defence, waited patiently. For months they had been calling for President Omar al Bashir to step down. Six hours later, the somewhat strained figure of General Awad Ibn Auf, the defence minister and vice president – and in that capacity heir apparent to Bashir – appeared on TV to say that the army had taken over and a further announcement would come before long. He looked unwell and sounded indecisive.

On Friday 12 April, Ibn Auf quit and another senior general, Abdel Fattah Burhan, took the presidential oath of office. No one had a clue about his character or politics; commentators speculated that his relative obscurity must mean he was an apolitical figure ready to preside over a compromise. An hour later he made an overture to the protesters, a vast crowd whose discipline and fortitude compares impressively with the disarray of the security chiefs: it was obvious that the generals’ pact was unravelling once Salah Abdallah Gosh, the head of the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS), announced his resignation too.

Sudan saw 14 coups between independence in 1956 and the Islamist putsch in 1989 that brought Brigadier Omar al-Bashir to power. Khalid el Kid, who tried to seize power as a young colonel in the 1970s and later became a lecturer in English literature in Ireland, had the idea in 1990 of writing a cartoon history of them. He was killed shortly afterwards, hit by a car on the Euston Road while dashing to join an opposition meeting. One of the books in his library was a 1975 graphic novel by Hergé, the creator of Tintin, portraying Jaafar Nimeiri’s putsch of 1969, and his dramatic escape from an attempted counter coup two years later.

Most of the coups took place in the middle of the night – the officers involved having boosted their courage with a drinking session – and the population woke either to martial music and the voice of a new military man on the radio, or the announcement that a treacherous subversion had been repressed. In one of the failed attempts, military units commandeered a train to storm Khartoum, but a railway signalman who wasn’t in on the deal switched the points and sent the insurgents into a siding. In 1971, communists caught the government off guard by launching their coup in the middle of the afternoon, during the siesta hour when most people were asleep. (It was reversed after three days, with Nimeiri’s escape from detention, much relished by Hergé.) The 1989 Islamist coup was notable in part because Bashir and his fellow officers were stone cold sober.

Ba‘athist officers tried to overthrow Bashir during Ramadan the following year. The Islamist security services summarily executed 28 of them. For almost thirty years there were no further coup attempts. By chance or design, Bashir created an apparently coup-proof system of rule. As well as a proficient spy network, he used two tools, one obvious to all, the other more subtle.

The overt coup-proofing method was to divide and rule the security forces. The NISS, with tanks and helicopters at its disposal, could put up a formidable resistance to any army units. Soon after taking power, Bashir also created the Popular Defence Forces, an umbrella term for various paramilitary outfits, including some which were loyal to the Islamist party. There are also oilfield security units, Border Intelligence (former Darfurian Janjaweed), Central Reserve Police and, the biggest of the lot, the Rapid Support Force, which also grew out of Darfurian Arab militia. Seven thousand RSF troops are deployed in Yemen on Saudi Arabia’s payroll, and the RSF commander, Mohamed Hamdan Hemeti, became one of the main powerbrokers at military HQ in Khartoum.

Without a unified military capable of taking control of the capital, it looked as if Bashir would be immune to the fate of his predecessor Nimeiri, who lost power in April 1985 when the army command decided to ‘stand with the people’ during a civilian uprising – the path followed by the Egyptian army when it deposed Hosni Mubarak during the Arab Spring. The leaders of the different forces only had to get together with the army chiefs, however, and Bashir would be out. This is what happened on the morning of 11 April.

Bashir’s other, less conspicuous kind of armour was loyalty and reciprocal trust. After the killing of the 28 ‘Ramadan martyrs’, the president made sure that no officer was executed or extradited. In 1995, when a group of officers were caught red-handed trying to assassinate Mubarak at a summit in Ethiopia, Bashir demoted them or cycled them out of power but made sure they were not handed over to the Egyptians or Ethiopians.

He was a generous, sociable patron. Twice a week he held open house for army officers at his residence in the vast military HQ compound in Khartoum. Any soldier with the rank of captain or above could drop by. Bashir was friendly, solicitous and helpful. He was also accommodating to the provincial aristocracy of tribal chiefs, who served as militia commanders, and to paramilitary leaders. The result was a prodigious level of personal intelligence about what was going on. While Gosh and the NISS spied on people – NISS and Gosh’s own private companies have a stake in Sudan’s mobile phone networks – and broke up opposition cells using detention, torture and agents provocateurs, Bashir was like an uncle to every man in the sprawling security apparatus. Everyone trusted him to stick to the unwritten rules.

Bashir customised the system of government and security as a show which only he could run, as his successors are quickly discovering. When international human rights activists condemn Bashir for his brutality and call for him to face trial at the International Criminal Court, they misunderstand the social norms that have kept his regime together. When the ICC indicted his subordinates, Bashir stood by them, and so far they have insisted that they will not extradite him to The Hague. On Wednesday, he was transferred from house arrest to Kober prison, where generations of political prisoners have been jailed, including the elected parliamentarians he overthrew thirty years ago. It’s also where the prison service protects its professional ethos: Bashir won’t be mistreated there. Kober is a symbolic humiliation but not an ejection from the elite.

The civility of the Sudanese elite crosses political divides, to the astonishment – and perplexity – of foreign mediators dispatched by the UN or Western governments to try to resolve Sudan’s wars. When they meet in a Kenyan hotel for talks, the leaders of warring groups, whose fighters are killing one another in rural Sudan, will embrace, exchange greetings and inquire after one another’s families. Political rivals in Khartoum celebrate at each others’ family weddings. Political assassinations or executions have always been rare and in the last 25 years they were almost unheard of. These norms helped Bashir to hold onto the presidency, but they also ultimately broke him.

During his last years in office, he used his formidable political talents simply to stay in power, and did nothing for the country. Anti-government protests erupted last December, first against the high prices of bread and fuel, and then against Bashir’s endless rule and the corruption that accompanied it. Despite weekly demonstrations in Khartoum and other cities, Bashir imagined he could outlast the protesters. He thought they lacked leadership and would be easily divided, bought off or demoralised. He was wrong. On 6 April – the anniversary of the popular uprising that brought down Nimeiri in 1985 – the biggest ever crowds surrounded the Ministry of Defence and military HQ, and refused to disperse.

By then about fifty people had died in the protests. Given the size of the demonstrations, it is a relatively low figure – more than 200 were killed in two weeks of protests in 2013. Army officers would not order their units to fire on the crowds. Among the demonstrators were the sons and daughters of their friends, colleagues and family members; sometimes their own children. One brigadier said his daughter came home from the protests asking him not to shoot her friends. The violence since last December – live ammunition, high concentrations of tear gas, beatings and torture – was perpetrated by the NISS and militia groups. When Bashir’s security chiefs met in their besieged HQ on 6 and 7 April and gave orders to disperse the crowds, the paramilitaries were ready to do it, but the regular army wasn’t. On two successive nights, army units opened fire on the paramilitaries in defence of the protesters.

Bashir knew all the political intrigue among the middle and senior ranks of the military, but failed to anticipate the doggedness of the protesters and had no idea how to respond to their demands. There had been opportunities to democratise the country – the Sudanese were willing to put up with him until the elections scheduled for April 2020, provided he opened up the political scene in a credible way. He began a ‘national dialogue’, which looked promising until he insisted on chairing it; he announced a new constitutional convention, but too late for the opposition parties to take it seriously. He was too cautious to venture any meaningful concessions.

The Alliance for Freedom and Change consists of 22 opposition organisations, including the Sudan Professionals Association, coalitions of political parties, Girifna (‘we have had enough,’ a movement of young people), the Forum of Sudanese Tweeters and the families of the Ramadan martyrs. They and the demonstrators outside the walls of the military HQ have been more disciplined and cohesive than the generals within. They issued a declaration on 1 January, the anniversary of Sudan’s independence, calling for Bashir to be replaced by a transitional civilian council, to govern for four years and prepare the way for a genuine democracy.

When General Burhan offered to talk on 13 April, some opposition leaders said the alliance should simply present its demands and refuse to negotiate; others said it would be better to enter into a dual authority arrangement with the army. The Sudan Revolutionary Forces – a coalition of armed insurgents in Darfur and the ‘two areas’ of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile, who have been fighting for years – said it was too early to enter talks. This made the civic opposition leaders’ hearts sink: the southern rebel leader John Garang refused to join the civilian government in 1985, in nearly identical circumstances, arguing that he could get more by continuing to fight (and went on to do so for another twenty years).

If the civic opposition can seize the day, they could well set the agenda in their talks with a disoriented soldiery. If they cannot, the situation could quickly deteriorate. Gosh’s resignation is a warning. He is a merciless operator and no one expects him to go quietly into retirement. The security bosses all have foreign ties: the Islamists (currently sidelined by the coup) have backers in Qatar and Turkey; Ibn Auf may be gone but others in the high command are close to Egypt; Burhan and Hemeti have led troop deployments in Yemen on the Saudi payroll; Gosh is close to the United Arab Emirates. The security hydra – multitudinous, avaricious, with each faction backed by a rivalrous foreign patron – poses an ominous threat.

Eleven years ago, Hemeti and his Darfur Arab militia mutinied to demand a better deal from the government that had armed them and dispatched them to fight. The Channel 4 journalist Nima Elbagir filmed Hemeti as he negotiated his return to Bashir’s fold. In a dusty clearing in the bush, Hemeti held a meeting to sound out the views of his men and secure their backing, and then demanded a financial package from Khartoum. He switched back to fighting for the government when he got what he wanted. It’s a rare and compelling insight into a how a true specialist in violence operates in Sudan’s political marketplace.

Sudan, in other words, is poised between an inspirational transformation and dangerous disorder. It is still a beneficiary of the social codes that limit violence within the elite and in the cities. Sudan’s democratic moment is still desperately fragile.

Source: London Review Books blog 
Profile: Dr. Alex de Waal, Executive Director of the World Peace Foundation
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Postscript from Sudan Watch editor
In the essay above, the author, Alex de Waal, mentions the name Tintin. I had forgotten all about Tintin. My late father, who had a great sense of humour, often used the word “Tintin” to describe something or someone or other. Now, thanks to the Internet and Wikipedia, I know what he meant. Here are some snippets.

The Adventures of Tintin is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies, and had been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film.

The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century. Its hero is Tintin, a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer. He is aided by his faithful dog Snowy. Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus, as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thomson and the opera diva Bianca Catafiore.

The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature "clear line" style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, action, mysteries, political thrillers, and science fiction. The stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary.


Tintin is neither a surname nor a first name, it is much more than that Tintin is a totally unique world, a myth or a saga. Tintin is created from Hergé’s subconscious desire to be perfect, to be a hero. The hero who everyone between 7 and 77 years old wants to be, or become while reading the Adventures of Tintin.

Hergé said

"The idea for the character of Tintin and the sort of adventures that would befall him came to me, I believe, in five minutes, the moment I first made a sketch of the figure of this hero: that is to say, he had not haunted my youth nor even my dreams. Although it's possible that as a child I imagined myself in the role of a sort of Tintin."
—Hergé, 15 November 1966.
Tintin is me wanting to be heroic and perfect …”  “Tintin is me… my eyes, my feelings, my lungs, my guts!… I believe I am the only person able to animate him, the only person to give him a soul.
Further Reading
Oct 17, 2008 - Sudan Watch 
TRANSCRIPT: UK Channel 4 News Lindsey Hilsum’s interview on 09 Oct 2008 with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir at the Presidential Palace in Khartoum, Sudan. Throughout the interview Mr Bashir spoke English.
(Note: Front page and posts at this site Sudan Watch - - take several minutes to load. After a 5-year hiatus the blog is undergoing maintenance to enable new and old posts to appear quickly)  
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Tweet of the Week

Above image: Screenshot of a tweet by long-time Africa correspondent Rob Crilly @robcrilly, author of SAVING DARFUR - Everyone's Favourite African War (see image here below - and more at Rob's website
Tweet caption: "The prison where it all began... Hassan al-Turabi famously plotted the 1989 coup while being "held" here #Sudan
Image caption: BBC NEWS 
Sudan ex-leader Bashir moved to prison
Eyewitnesses say former President Omar al-Bashir has been taken to Kobar maximum security prison.
6:25 am - 17 Apr 2019

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Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Sudan Coup Crisis: UN chief appoints Nicholas Haysom to help African Union mediation in Sudan

  • From Voice of America
  • By Margaret Besheer
  • Tuesday April 16, 2019 5:45 PM 

  • The U.N. secretary-general has appointed special adviser Nicholas Haysom to support the African Union's mediation efforts in Sudan, where the military ousted longtime President Omar al-Bashir last week.

  • "He is being put at disposal of the African Union, which we understand will be engaged in some mediation capacity between the transitional council in Khartoum and various parts of Sudanese society," U.N. spokesman Stephane Dujarric told reporters Tuesday. "Mr. Haysom will be there to support them in whatever way he can."

  • He said that U.N. chief António Guterres had spoken Monday with Moussa Faki Mahamat, the chair of the African Union Commission, and told him that Haysom would be available.

  • "The secretary-general is very attached to his partnership with the African Union and he will do whatever he can to support their efforts," Dujarric said.

  • Haysom was most recently the U.N.'s top man in Somalia, but was expelled after four months by the Somali federal government, after he tried to intervene on behalf of a former al-Shabab leader who sought to take part in elections but was banned by Somalia's electoral commission.

  • Haysom, a South African lawyer, was previously the U.N. special envoy for Sudan and South Sudan and was head of the U.N. mission in Afghanistan.

  • The African Union Peace and Security Council issued a strong statement Monday condemning the military takeover in Sudan as an unconstitutional change of government, and demanding the military hand over power to a transitional civilian-led political authority within 15 days.

  • Failure to do so, the AU warned, would result in Sudan's suspension from participation in all African Union activities until constitutional order is restored.

  • Sudan's General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as Hemedti, head of the Rapid Support Forces, is sworn-in as the appointed deputy of Sudan's Transitional Military Council, standing before the head of transitional council, Lieutenant General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan

  • Meanwhile, in Khartoum Tuesday, the country's new military ruler, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, fired the country's top prosecutor in an apparent concession to demonstrators' demands.

  • Protest leaders have called for the new ruling military council to be dissolved and replaced by a civilian one, in the wake of the military coup that ousted President al-Bashir last week.

  • Mohamed Naji, a senior leader of the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) — the main group behind months of protests against al-Bashir — said the group wants to see a civic council formed that includes representatives from the army.

  • On Sunday, Sudan's military council said it would name a civilian prime minister and cabinet minister to help run the country but would not name a civilian to the office of the president. A military spokesman also said the council would not stop the demonstrations that are continuing.

  • The SPA has called for more demonstrations until its demands are met.

  • The protests began Dec. 19, with demonstrators accusing al-Bashir's government of economic mismanagement that sparked skyrocketing food prices, and fuel and foreign currency shortages.

  • Al-Bashir is wanted by the International Criminal Court on charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in connection with atrocities in the western region of Darfur. However, the military leaders have said he will not be turned over to the ICC, but will instead be tried in Sudan.

  • Source:
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Uganda willing to offer Al-Bashir asylum

Apr 17, 2019 - VIDEO report, posted on this blog’s sister sites 
From SABC Digital News
Published on Google’s YouTube, Tuesday 16 April 2019
Here is a copy of a written report by SABC posted with the video:
“The government of Uganda says it is willing to consider granting asylum to deposed Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir. It says, this in appreciation for his role in the South-Sudan peace deal. Uganda's State Minister for foreign affairs Henry Okello Oryem, said on Tuesday in Kampala, that if al-Bashir applied for asylum in Uganda his government could consider the matter. We are now joined LIVE for more on this story by Correspondent Michale Baleke from Kampala, Uganda.”
Click here to view the video:

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is funded in whole or in part by the South African government. Wikipedia
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Ex-President Omar al-Bashir moved to prison

Apr 17, 2019 - NEWS report from BBC online Wednesday 17 April 2019 11:50 GMT UK:
Sudan's former President Omar al-Bashir has been moved to Kobar maximum security prison, days after he was deposed in a military coup. Reports say the ex-leader has until now been detained at the presidential residence under heavy guard.
He is reportedly being held in solitary confinement and is surrounded by tight security.
Months of protests in Sudan led to the ousting and arrest of the long-time ruler on Thursday.
Uganda's Minister for Foreign Affairs Henry Oryem Okello told Reuters news agency the country would consider offering the deposed leader asylum if he applied, despite an arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC).
As an ICC member, Uganda would have to hand over Mr Bashir if he arrived in the country. The ICC has not yet commented.”
Read full story and live updates at BBC News online:

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Sudan Army coup attempt in Khartoum could be under way

From Al Jazeera English, a video news report published on Google's YouTube Thursday 11 April 2019. Click on the link below to view the video.  Here is a full copy of a written news report by Al Jazeera posted with the video:
Sudan Army says it will make important 'announcement'
The Sudanese Army has deployed troops around the defence ministry, on key roads and bridges in the capital Khartoum.
There are reports the head of the ruling party and the former vice president have been detained.
Thousands have flocked to the streets of the capital - and joined a sit-in outside the military headquarters. That protest has been taking place since Saturday.
Earlier, state television said the armed forces would make an important announcement, amid speculation a coup attempt could be under way against President Omar al-Bashir. It follows months of protests against his 30-year rule.
Al Jazeera's Hiba Morgan reports.
Al Jazeera is funded in whole or in part by the Qatari government.

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Thursday, July 25, 2013

FULL TEXT: South Sudan's President Kiir issues decrees sacking his cabinet and deputy Riek Machar

  • South Sudan's President Salva Kiir sacks cabinet, including his deputy Riek Machar [1]
  • South Sudan's ousted cabinet barred from entering ministries [2]
  • UK Minister for Africa Mark Simmonds urges restraint after dismissal of south Sudanese Government [3]
  • UN mission closely monitoring situation in South Sudan amid political changes [4]
  • FULL TEXT Documents: Decrees issued by South Sudan's President Salva Kiir [5]
  • UN Security Council Resolution 2109 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6998th meeting on 11 July 2013 [6]
  • Darfur, Western Sudan:  UN Chief: ‘Situation in Darfur continues to regress’ - UN peacekeeping chief visits Sudan [7]
  • North Kordofan, Central Sudan:  Sudanese army repulses SRF rebels' attack in North Kordofan - Sudan army, rebels clash ahead of oil deadline [8a & 8b]
  • Seven Tanzanian UNAMID peacekeepers killed and 17 others injured in ambush in Darfur on 12 July 2013 - Tanzania bids farewell to its departed heroes [9a, 9b & 9c]
  • Sudan files complaint to African Union against Uganda's support for rebels [10]
  • DR Congo:  Heavy fighting has resumed between the Congolese army and the M23 armed group in the Mutaho-Kibati area, near Goma, in N. Kivu Province [11]
  • DR Congo:  Over 30,000 Congolese flee rebel attacks to Uganda: UN [12]
  • CAR:  Communiqué of AU PSC on situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) [13]
NOTE from the Editor of Sudan Watch:  Here below are details relating to each of the sixteen news reports listed above, in numerical order.  Yellow highlighting is mine.  Also for my own ease of reference, I have selected the reports (after trawling through hundreds) and listed them in this single blog post simply to give myself a snapshot of what is going on (a sickening nightmare) at this time in and around the two Sudans.  In my view, as stated many times before, the "rebels" are criminal gangs and ought to be treated as such.  What is Interpol doing, I wonder.  This'll go on for decades.  Only the poor will suffer.  Poverty will never be eradicated.  Life is too short, cruel and unfair.

[1]  Report by AFP published at on Wednesday, 24 July 2013.  Full copy:
South Sudan's Salva Kiir sacks cabinet
South Sudan's President, Salva Kiir, on Wednesday sacked his entire cabinet, including his main political rival Riek Machar. The move raises fears of political instability in a country riven by ethnic  rivalries and still reeling from decades of war.

Heavily armed South Sudanese security forces guarded key government institutions in the capital Juba Wednesday as radio broadcasts called for calm after the president suspended his cabinet and his main political rival.

Those removed by President Salva Kiir include two of the country's most influential leaders - his rival vice-president Riek Machar Machar and Pagan Amum, the secretary-general of the ruling party, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM).

The sackings have sparked concern over potential instability in the fledgling nation, which is awash with guns, riven by ethnic rivalries and still reeling from decades of war.

"We are asking our citizens, please do your duty and go to work," said Barnaba Marial Benjamin, who until his suspension late Tuesday was the information minister and government spokesman.

All 29 ministers were suspended as well as their deputies, in addition to 17 police brigadiers.

"Give the president a chance to form his government... he has already empowered the technocrats to see the day-to-day running of the administration," Benjamin said in a broadcast on the UN-supported Radio Miraya.

Troops and armed police blocked several key roads in Juba, with a heavy deployment at the government ministry complex, but the city was reported calm, army spokesman Philip Aguer said.

"This is routine work, they are being deployed to protect the ministries," Aguer told AFP.

Many of the ministers were key figures in the rebel SPLM or its armed wing that fought a brutal 1983-2005 war against the government in Khartoum, which led to a 2011 referendum in which South Sudan voted overwhelmingly to split from the north.

Machar, from the Dok Nuer people from the key oil producing Unity state, is a controversial figure for many, but commands loyalty among many branches of the Nuer, which form an integral part of the footsoldiers of the new nation's ex-rebel army.

He has made no secret of his desire to challenge Kiir for the presidency in elections due in 2015.

However, he fought on both sides of the civil war, leading a splinter SPLM faction that sided with Khartoum, battling troops commanded by Kiir, who comes from the Dinka people.

Machar's troops are accused of a brutal massacre in the ethnic Dinka town of Bor in 1991.

"This latest move is part of an ongoing struggle in the highest levels of South Sudan's political leadership," said Akshaya Kumar of the US-based Enough Project, which campaigns for peace in the Sudans.

Last month, Machar led talks with Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir to ease tensions after Khartoum threatened to halt oil flows worth billions of dollars to both impoverished neighbours.

Amum was the top negotiator with arch-foe Sudan at long-running African Union-mediated talks over a raft of issues left unresolved at independence, including border demarcation and oil exports, currently under threat of suspension again, this time by Khartoum.

The suspended party leader is to be also investigated for alleged "mismanagement of the party" by a parliamentary committee, the presidential orders broadcast on state radio said.

However, Khartoum said the suspensions would not impact oil and security pacts reached between them.

"These are agreements between two countries" not individuals, said Abubakr Al-Siddiq, spokesman for Sudan's foreign ministry.

Sudan has issued an August 7 deadline to shut down oil production -- accusing Juba of backing rebels in the north, claims Juba denies -- in the  latest in a string of threatened cuts.

South Sudan's oil minister Stephen Dhieu Dau, speaking Tuesday ahead of his suspension, said Juba will end its production by July 31, which would be the second major shutdown since independence two years ago.

No replacements have been announced, and it was not clear if any of those suspended would return, or if new blood would be brought in to the cabinet.

While Juba has been rife with rumours in recent weeks about a potential reshuffle by Kiir -- especially concerning tense relations with Machar -- the move still caught many by surprise.

"It is possible that this move could lead to increased political tension or disturbances in Juba and other parts of the country," Britain's Foreign Office warned.

The political reshuffle comes as civilians reel from heavy clashes in the troubled eastern state of Jonglei, where fierce fighting between rival ethnic groups have left hundreds of people wounded, and raised fears many others have been killed.
Source:  AFP report reprinted at
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[2]  Report from Radio dated Wednesday, 24 July 2013.  Full copy:
South Sudan’s ousted cabinet barred from entering ministries
JUBA, South Sudan - The national ministers who were relieved of duty yesterday are barred from entering their former offices except under escort.
The entire cabinet of 28 ministers as well as all the deputy ministers were removed by decree of President Salva Kiir and have yet to be replaced.

Undersecretaries are now responsible for discharging the functions of their respective ministries and are to report directly to an official in the presidency, Secretary-General of the Government Abdoun Agaw.

Agaw met today with the undersecretaries, state radio in Juba announced this evening. He was quoted as saying that former ministers and deputy ministers will only be allowed into the ministries to remove their personal belongings in the presence of security personnel.

According to a witness who spent the day at one of the ministries at the main ministries complex, very few government employees reported to work today. Some entrances to the complex were unguarded but at least one entrance was manned by soldiers armed with heavy machine guns.
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[3]  Report from African Press Organization (APO) dated Thursday, 25 July 2013.  Full copy:
UK Minister for Africa urges restraint after dismissal of south Sudanese Government                                                                                                                      
LONDON, United-Kingdom - FCO urge peaceful response to dismissal of South Sudan government and rapid appointment of new ministers reflecting country's diversity

FCO Minister for Africa Mark Simmonds said:

“I have been concerned by the growing political divisions in South Sudan over the past months, culminating in the decision of President Salva Kiir Mayardit to dismiss his Vice President and all Ministers from the Government of South Sudan on 23 July.

“At a time when South Sudan faces many challenges internally and in its relations with Sudan, it needs strong united leadership, committed to responding to the needs of its people, and resolving its internal conflicts and disputes with Sudan.

“I therefore encourage President Kiir to act quickly to appoint a new government, in accordance with the Interim Constitution, that reflects the diverse groups in South Sudanese society.

“I strongly urge all groups and individuals to respond in a measured and peaceful manner, and to work together to maintain security and the rule of law. We will look to them to engage constructively in the democratic process, for the benefit of South Sudan's peaceful development.”
Source:  APO report reprinted at
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[4]  Report from Xinhua (Agencies) dated Thursday, 25 July 2013; 08:58.  Full copy:
UN mission closely monitoring situation in South Sudan amid political changes       
UN mission in South Sudan is closely monitoring the situation in the country after its president fired the vice president and dismissed the lead negotiator in talks with Sudan, a spokesperson said on Wednesday.

The UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) noted that Vice President Riek Machar has publicly stated that he recognizes the President's right to dissolve the government and that he is willing to launch opposition through the electoral process, UN deputy spokesperson Eduardo del Buey told reporters at a daily news briefing.

"The Mission also notes that no actor has challenged the constitutionality of the steps taken by the President," del Buey said, adding that UNMISS is very closely monitoring the situation.

South Sudanese President Salva Kiir on Tuesday sacked his deputy Riek Machar, dissolved the government, and suspended the top negotiator of the world's newest nation with Sudan.
Source:  Reprinted by
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[5]  Report by Radio dated Wednesday, 24 July 2013.   Full copy:
Documents: decrees issued by South Sudan's President 
JUBA, South Sudan - South Sudan's President Salva Kiir announced on Tuesday [23 July 2013] over the state radio in Juba [South Sudan] he was relieving several members of his government in a series of decrees.
Among those relieved are Vice President Riek Machar, every national minister and deputy ministers, 17 brigadiers in the police service and SPLM Secretary Pa’gan Amum.

Amum will be investigated by a committee chaired by Speaker of the Assembly James Wani Igga. The SPLM Secretary is accused of ‘administrative mismanagement’ within the party, and the investigation will report back within 30 days to the president, who is also chairman of the party.

See below the following Orders issued by President Salva Kiir:

RSS/RO/J/14/2013 – Reduction and Restructuring of the Ministries of the National Government of the Republic of South Sudan

SPLM/CPO/J/01/2013 – Suspension and the Formation of the Committee to Investigate the SPLM Secretary General

RSS/RD/J/49/2013 – Relief of the Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan

RSS/RD/J/50/2013 – Relief of National Ministers of the Government of the Republic of South Sudan

RSS/RD/J/51/2013 – Relief of National Deputy Ministers of the Government of the Republic of South Sudan

Restructuring of the ministries.pdf of the ministries.pdf
Suspension of Pagan Amum.pdf of Pagan Amum_0.pdf
Relief of VP.pdf of VP.pdf
Relief of National ministers.pdf of National ministers.pdf
Relieve of National Deputy ministers.pdf of National Deputy ministers.pdf 
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[6]  UN Security Council Resolution 2109 (2013) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6998th meeting on 11 July 2013
Excerpt re:  UN Peacekeeping operation in South Sudan:  "Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, 1.Decides to extend the mandate of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) as set out in paragraph 3 of resolution 1996 (2011) through 15 July 2014;"
Read full document at: 
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[7a]  Report by Radio Dabanga published Monday, 22 July 2013.  Full copy: 
UN Chief: ‘Situation in Darfur continues to regress’

NEW YORK - In his latest update to the UN Security Council, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has lamented the continued deterioration of the humanitarian and security situation in Darfur.
“The situation continues to deteriorate, the implementation of the peace agreement signed two years ago in Doha is at an unacceptably slow pace, while most of it has not even commenced. The government and allied militias have imposed increased restrictions for Unamid peacekeepers to investigate insecurity. Only 25 per cent (11 out of 44 units) of the UN military and police units with armoured cars are usable for the minimum required threshold service level.”

These are Ban’s main conclusions in his latest update, signed July 13, 2013, to the Security Council concerning the Unamid peacekeeping operation in Sudan's Darfur.

The Secretary General has a different view than that of members of the Implementation Follow-Up Commission (IFC) for the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) with regard to the 12 May killing of breakaway JEM leader, Mohamed Bashar (see related coverage below).

Mohamed Bashar, leader of a breakaway faction of JEM, his deputy, Suleiman Arko, and other colleagues were killed on 12 May during an attack near the Chad-Sudanese border. Conflicting reports surrounding the circumstances of the attack were issued by JEM-Ibrahim who are accused of carrying out the deadly attack, and the JEM-Bashar faction.

The IFC members condemned the killing of Bashar; reports were conflicting at the time, but they assumed the clash took place in Chad. Members include: Qatar, Chad, China, Egypt, France, Japan, Russian Federation, Sudan, United Kingdom, United States of America, UNAMID, African Union, United Nations, European Union, League of Arab States, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Liberation and Justice Movement, and Justice and Equality Movement-Bashar.

According to Ban, Bashar was killed by another rebel group (JEM-Ibrahim) he had broken away from in order to sign a peace agreement with Khartoum. In his latest update to the UN Security Council, Ban confirms that Bashar was killed inside Darfur while returning from Chad supplied with heavy arms.

Apparently several of the people killed held Chadian nationality. According to Article 399 of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (less formally referred to as the Doha peace agreement), the government should disarm the militias before implementation of the peace agreement can start.

In the 4 June declaration, IFC members did not condemn the killing of a Nigerian peacekeeper by a pro-government militia. Neither did they mention the fact that several civilians were killed in government attacks and bombardments within sight of the Unamid team sites in Labado and Muhajeriya.

According the July report by Ban, an estimated 17,100 civilians took refuge around the two Unamid bases in the first two weeks of April. Widespread movement restrictions imposed by government forces and armed movements prevented the peacekeepers form assessing the situation and to help the casualties.

Radio Dabanga had reported that people were dying in front of the team sites, with no aid provided. The UN Secretary General says in his update: “I condemn, in the strongest terms, the attack on the Unamid base in Muhajeriya which resulted in the death of one peacekeeper.

“Such acts are reprehensible and a violation of international law. I call upon the Government to bring the perpetrators of these heinous acts to justice.”

The UN chief also reiterated that that he is deeply disturbed by the killing of Mohamed Bashar and several other members of his faction. Amongst the slain pro-government militia was its leader Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus. A case against him was scheduled at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague.

Jerbo and Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain were the main suspects in the killing of 12 African peacekeepers from Nigeria, Mali, Senegal and Botswana in Haskanita in 2007. They were charged for war crimes including pillaging, murder and attacking peacekeepers.

Banda is now one of the main implementing officials of the peace agreement on behalf of the government. The UN does not mention the ICC, but refers instead to the Sudan government’s Special Prosecutor saying that “no further details on the types of crimes or the status of their prosecution were provided”.

Doha peace agreement

The UN chief is concerned about the scant implementation of the Doha peace agreement. Two years after the signing of the DDPD, the ceasefire and security arrangements are still pending, as is the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission. The reconciliation process is delayed, a micro-finance system for income-generating activities as well as a compensation fund for victims remain outstanding. He quantified the progress as “an unacceptably slow pace”.

In the past three months Unamid was denied access and freedom of movement by the authorities to investigate insecurity 181 times, against 102 times in the previous months. In the reporting period, more than 300,000 people were displaced, as many as the total for all the previous years together.

The report said that paramilitary government forces, specifically the Central Reserve Police (Abu Tira), the Popular Defence Forces (an Islamist militia) and the border guards previously known as Janjaweed were often identified by survivors.

The UN chief hails the results of the Darfur donor conference in April 2013. A pledge of $3.6 billion was made against the $7.2 billion identified as funding needs, the main part coming from Sudan itself ($2,6 billion) and from Qatar.

The secretary general concludes that potential donors have indicated a reluctance to commit funds given the little progress in the implementation of the Doha peace agreement.

File photo: UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (Mark Garten/UN Photo)
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[7b] A deterioration in the security situation in Darfur,  Sudan - UN peacekeeping chief visits Sudan

HERE are some extracts from a Press Release by UNAMID (the UN-AU Mission in Darfur) dated 05 July 2013 entitled "UN peacekeeping chief visits Sudan":
  • 300,000 displaced since the beginning of this year
  • On 03 July 2013 three peacekeepers were injured in an ambush on a UNAMID convoy near Labado, East Darfur, Sudan
  • On 03 July 2013 the head of UN peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous visited East Darfur, Sudan
  • On 04 July 2013 Hervé Ladsous met with Sudan's President Bashir and other senior officials of the Government of Sudan
On 05 July 2013, Hervé Ladsous, accompanied by the Joint Special Representative and head of the African Union - United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), Mohamed Ibn Chambas, wrapped up a visit to Sudan.

During the visit, which began on 03 July, Mr. Ladsous travelled to El Daein, East Darfur State, where he met with the Wali (Governor) and other members of local government, leaders of Native Administration and civil society, as well as internally displaced people at Neem camp. He also had extensive discussions with UNAMID personnel. In Khartoum, Mr. Ladsous met with President Omar Al-Bashir and other senior officials of the Government of Sudan.

Speaking to the press in Khartoum on 04 July, the USG expressed concern over the recent intensification of conflict in Darfur and its impact on the civilian population. “We have witnessed a deterioration in the security situation. More people have been displaced—over 300,000 since the beginning of this year—due mostly to tribal clashes,” the head of UN peacekeeping said.

Mr. Ladsous called on all parties to cease hostilities and praised the efforts of UNAMID peacekeepers, who serve in very difficult circumstances, to protect civilians, secure the delivery of aid and support the peace process.

Speaking to the press in Khartoum, Sudan on 04 July 2013, Hervé Ladsous stated that on 03 July, three peacekeepers were injured in an ambush on a UNAMID convoy near Labado, East Darfur. “Attacks on peacekeepers are a crime,” he said, adding that in violation of international humanitarian law a UNAMID ambulance was fired upon by the unidentified armed group that had mounted the ambush. Condemning the incident and noting the peacekeepers’ robust response to the attack, the USG stressed that the perpetrators must be apprehended and prosecuted.

Source:  UNAMID Press Release at:
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[8a]  Report by Xinhua published Wednesday, 24 July 2013;  22:32:57.  Full copy:
Sudanese army repulses rebel attack in North Kordofan [Central Sudan]   

KHARTOUM, Sudan - The Sudanese army on Wednesday said it had repulsed an attack by the rebel Revolutionary Front in Al-Sidra area in North Kordofan state, official SUNA news agency reported.

"The remnants of the so-called Revolutionary Front this morning launched a heinous attack against Al-Sidra village in North Kordofan state with the aim to rob citizens of their money," the agency quoted Al-Sawarmy Khalid Saad, the Sudanese army spokesman, as saying.

He further said that the Sudanese armed forces repulsed the remnants of the rebels, inflicted on them huge casualties and equipment losses and forced them to flee the attack scene.

He said the area was now under the full control of the Sudanese armed forces, noting that five soldiers were killed during the clashes with the rebels.

South Kordofan state has been witnessing armed clashes since 2011 between the Sudanese army and the People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)/northern sector, which has formed the Revolutionary Front with a number of Darfur armed movements.

Last April, the rebel alliance, which brought together the SPLM/ northern sector, Darfur's Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), the Sudan Liberation Army's Abdul-Wahid Mohamed Nur faction and the Minni Minawi faction, attacked Um Rawaba and Abu Karshula areas in North and South Kordofan states.

Khartoum accuses South Sudan of supporting the SPLM/northern sector, while Juba denies the allegation.  (Editor: yan)
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[8b]  Report from AFP by Ian Timberlake dated Wednesday, 24 July 2013.  Full copy:
Sudan army, rebels clash ahead of oil deadline

KHARTOUM, Sudan - Sudanese rebels clashed with troops in North Kordofan Wednesday, both sides said, days before a Khartoum deadline to halt South Sudan's oil exports over allegations it is backing the insurgents. 
The Justice and Equality Movement, a Darfur-based group which is part of a wider rebel alliance, said it attacked a military convoy and captured the garrison at Sidrah, about 30 kilometres (20 miles) south of El Rahad town.

The attack ended weeks of relative calm in the area.

"Fighting is still going on," JEM spokesman Gibril Adam Bilal told AFP early Wednesday.

The army later confirmed an attack against Sidrah but said it forced the rebels to flee, leaving government forces in control of the area.

"The aim of their attack was to loot the civilian population," the official SUNA news agency quoted army spokesman Sawarmi Khaled Saad as saying.

A Rahad resident told AFP: "We hear shooting and explosions.

"Authorities closed the schools and asked students to go home," the resident added, asking to remain anonymous because of the situation.

The JEM and two factions of the Sudan Liberation Army in Darfur belong to the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), an alliance with insurgents fighting in South Kordofan state south of Sidrah, and in Blue Nile.

The SRF staged its first joint operation in April, sweeping through a previously peaceful part of North Kordofan near Sidrah as part of coordinated attacks in the region.

Analysts said those rebel strikes humiliated the authorities, who took a month to retake one of the seized areas, Abu Kershola.

In June, Khartoum gave oil companies 60 days to stop transporting crude from South Sudan through a Sudanese export pipeline after President Omar al-Bashir accused the Juba government of backing the rebels in the north.

There has been confusion, however, about whether the 60 days is merely a warning period, with a shutdown possible after that deadline, which expires around August 7.

A source close to the oil industry said on Wednesday that full preparations to close the pipeline had not begun and crude was still flowing.

"Yes it's flowing," the source said.

An oil analyst earlier told AFP that 45 days would be required to complete a shutdown without damaging the infrastructure.

Juba denies supporting the insurgents and in turn says Khartoum assists rebels on southern soil.

Observers say that, in reality, both governments have aided each other's rebels.

On Monday, the African Union and east African bloc, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, inaugurated a panel to probe allegations of rebel support by each side.

Regional nations also began determining the centreline of a demilitarised buffer zone that is to straddle the 2,000-kilometre (1,250-mile) undemarcated border between the two countries.

The buffer zone is designed to cut cross-border rebel support.

While this process and the investigation of alleged rebel support take place, the AU and IGAD called on both states "to refrain from any unilateral action", an AU statement said on Monday.

South Sudan separated two years ago with most of the formerly united country's oil production but the pipelines and the Red Sea export terminal remained in the north.

After a fee dispute and intermittent border clashes, South Sudan in April resumed pumping its oil, which began slowly moving towards the Port Sudan terminal.

The South's export revenues, and the fees due Khartoum for use of the infrastructure, are potentially worth billions of dollars to both impoverished nations.

"The Sudanese government's priority is the insurgency; there are unlikely to be any positive developments in negotiations with South Sudan... if it continues," the Small Arms Survey, a Swiss-based independent research project, said in a briefing paper this month.

Earlier in July, Khartoum transferred Ahmed Haroun, the governor of South Kordofan, to take over the running of his native region North Kordofan.

Haroun is wanted by The Hague-based International Criminal Court on 22 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Darfur.

Photo:  Sudanese army soldiers pictured in Abu Kershola in South Kordofan after capturing the town from Sudan Revolutionary Front rebels, May 28, 2013. Sudanese rebels clashed with troops in North Kordofan Wednesday, both sides said, days before a Khartoum deadline to halt South Sudan's oil exports over allegations it is backing the insurgents. (AFP/File)
Source:   AFP report reprinted at
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[9a]  Seven Tanzanian UNAMID peacekeepers killed and 17 others injured in ambush in Darfur on 12 July 2013

Report from UN MultiMedia dated 18 July 2013 can be found at:
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[9b]  UNAMID peacekeepers killed, injured in South Darfur ambush

UNAMID Press Release from El Fasher, Darfur, western Sudan 13 July 2013.  Excerpt:
On 13 July, a joint patrol of the African Union - United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) was ambushed in South Darfur.

The incident, which began at 9:00 hours, occurred approximately 25 kilometers west of the Mission's Khor Abeche team site.

The UNAMID team came under heavy fire from a large unidentified group. Following an extended firefight, the patrol was extracted by UNAMID reinforcements that arrived from the Mission's Khor Abeche and Manawashi team sites. Seven UNAMID military peacekeepers were killed and 17 military and Police personnel, among them two female Police Advisers, were wounded.

"The Mission condemns in the strongest possible terms those responsible for this heinous attack on our peacekeepers," said UNAMID Joint Special Representative Mohamed Ibn Chambas. "The perpetrators should be on notice that they will be pursued for this crime and gross violation of international humanitarian law."

Photo:  UNAMID peacekeepers, based in Khor Abeche, South Darfur, drive in one of the Armored Personnel Carriers that was damaged during the attack.  Photo by Albert González Farran, UNAMID.
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[9c]  Tanzania bids farewell to its departed heroes

Report from The National Citizen entitled "Tanzania bids farewell to its departed heroes", written by Katare Mbashiru (email the author) published Monday, 22 July 2013;  19:17.  Excerpts: 
[Tanzanian] President Kikwete, who is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, led senior government officials and top army officers in bidding farewell to Sergeant Shaibu Othman, Corporal Oswald Chaula, Corporal Mohammed Juma Ali, Corporal Mohammed Chokizo, Private Rodney Ndunguru, Private Fortunatus Msofe and Private Peter Muhiri Werema. [...]
The soldiers were killed when gunmen ambushed a convoy of African Union-United Nations Mission in Darfur (Unamid) peacekeepers in southern Darfur on July 13. Seventeen others were wounded in the worst attack in Unamid’s five-year history. 
Full story at:
+ + + R.I.P. + + +

[10]  Report by Xinhua dated Saturday, 20 July 2013:   
Sudan files complaint to African Union against Uganda's support for rebels

KHARTOUM, Sudan - Sudan has filed a complaint to the African Union (AU) against Uganda over its support for rebel insurgency against Khartoum, Almeghar Alsyasi daily reported Saturday.  The paper quoted Foreign Ministry Undersecretary Rahamtalla Mohamed Osman as saying that the Sudanese government "is waiting for the AU's response to its complaint."
Full story at this blog's sister site Uganda Watch, Sunday 21 July 2013:
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[11]  DR Congo:  Heavy fighting has resumed between the Congolese army and the M23 armed group in the Mutaho-Kibati area, near Goma, in N. Kivu Province, DRC

Excerpt from Monday, 22 July 2013 Daily Press Briefing by the UN's Office of the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General:
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [MONUSCO] reports that heavy fighting has resumed between the Congolese army and the M23 [23 March Movement] armed group in the Mutaho-Kibati area, near Goma, in North Kivu Province.

The Mission, MONUSCO, adds that after exchanging intermittent fire over the weekend, both sides are now using small arms, mortars and rockets.  The Mission reiterates its call for restraint and its peacekeepers in the area remain on high alert.
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[12]  DR Congo:  Over 30,000 Congolese flee rebel attacks to Uganda: UN
Report from KAMPALA, Uganda by AFP dated 13 July 2013.  Excerpt:
More than 30,000 refugees from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo fleeing a rebel attack on the town of Kamango have arrived in neighbouring Uganda, UN officials said on Saturday...
Full story at this blog's sister site Congo Watch, Monday 22 July 2013:
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[13]  CAR:  Communiqué of AU PSC on situation in the Central African Republic (CAR)
From the Communiqué of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU), at its 386th meeting on the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) [Last Updated on Friday, 19 July 2013]: 
"The Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU), at its 386th meeting held on 19 July 2013, adopted the following decision on the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR)...[...]   6. Decides, on the basis of the concept of operations, annexed to the report of the Chairperson of the Commission, to authorize the deployment, for an initial period of six months, of AFISM-CAR, which will have a total strength of 3 652, including 3 500 uniformed personnel (2,475 for the military component and 1,025 for the police component) and 152 civilians, the nucleus of which will be constituted by the contingents currently serving in MICOPAX, in order to contribute to: (i) the protection of civilians and the restoration of security and public order, through the implementation of appropriate measures; (ii) the stabilization of the country and the restoration of the authority of the central Government; (iii) the reform and restructuring of the defense and security sector; and (iv) the creation of conditions conducive for the provision of humanitarian assistance to population in need;"
Full story published at this blog's sister site Congo Watch, Friday, 19 July 2013:
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