Saturday, February 24, 2024

Sudan: Clashes erupted between the RSF and armed tribal groups in Um Kadadah locality, North Darfur

DTM (Displacement Tracking Matrix) Sudan Flash Alert

Dated Saturday, 24 February 2024 - here is a copy in full:

Conflict in Um Kadadah (Um Kadadah Town), North Darfur

On 22 February 2024, clashes erupted between the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and armed tribal groups in  Um Kadadah Town of Um Kadadah locality, North Darfur.  

Field teams reported that the event led to widespread displacement across Um Kadadah locality, displacing the majority of Um Kadadah Town residents.  

Affected households sought refuge in surrounding locations including Burush Town and Jebel Hilla, Um Gafala, Zarafa, Umm Sidra, El Mashura and Damair villages of Um Kadadah locality. The situation remains tense and unpredictable. 

DTM will continue to monitor the developments closely and will provide further information on displacement and population mobility across Sudan, on a weekly basis, via its Weekly Displacement Snapshot

Disclaimer: Due to the current circumstances, the DTM network is relying on remote interviews with key informants and further verification is not possible at this time.

*DTM Sudan Flash Alerts provide an initial estimation of affected population figures gathered from field reports. All information is therefore pending verification through DTM’s Emergency Event Tracking (EET) and/or registration activities and is not to be used as official figures.



Unable to survive in Egypt, refugees return to Sudan. Egypt hosts nine million refugees and immigrants

THIS stomach churning report paints a picture of hopeless despair: unable to survive in Egypt, Sudanese refugees are returning to Sudan not knowing how or where to sleep safely. "We can't go back, we can't move anywhere else, and we can't stay here," Ali said from a Sudanese community centre in Cairo which is also under threat of eviction. Their priority, many told AFP, is finding anywhere safe to lay their heads, even if only on a cold tile floor. 

Read more in report from AFP via
By Bahira Amin
Dated Tuesday, 13 February 2024, 1:55 AM GMT - here is a copy in full:

Unable to survive in Egypt, refugees return to war-torn Sudan
Sudanese drivers rest on May 14, 2023 after transporting evacuees from Sudan into Egypt, in Wadi Karkar village near Aswan (Khaled DESOUKI)

Ten months after Sudan's brutal war sent hundreds of thousands fleeing, many of those who sought refuge in neighbouring Egypt are caught between the grim choice of homelessness or returning at their own peril.

Single mother Rehab has been in Egypt for seven months, fighting to build a life for her children. "I have a daughter who was born here, and I can't work to provide for her," the 28-year-old told AFP.

Gathered in a small church in eastern Cairo, dozens of women like Rehab said their families -- cramped into overcrowded apartments -- have been sleeping on bare floors since they arrived.

"People came to Egypt thinking life will be better here," 28-year old Ibram Kiir, a Sunday school teacher from Sudan who has been in Egypt for five years and helps refugees through the church, told AFP.  "But then reality hits. They don't have any money, they can't get an apartment, it's cold and they can't get winter clothes. So they turn back," he said.

Since the fighting began in April between the Sudanese army and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces, over 450,000 people have crossed the border into Egypt, according to official figures. Their priority, many told AFP, is finding anywhere safe to lay their heads, even if only on a cold tile floor.

But as the months stretch on, employment, proper housing and help become nearly impossible to find, with Egypt's two-year economic crisis rapidly worsening. Soaring inflation -- which registered a record high of 39.7 percent last year -- decimated livelihoods just as war-weary Sudanese began arriving.

Many turned up with just the clothes on their backs. They ended up staying in small apartments with two or three families at a time, many of them with only one breadwinner between them earning less than minimum wage.

Dan Mhik Akom, a 34-year-old who cleans houses part-time, tried to convince a friend things would get better. But after months watching his family "unable to even get to the kitchen to feed themselves" because of overcrowding, "he made up his mind and returned to Sudan," he told AFP.

- 'Rather die' -

Another Sunday school teacher, Randa Hussein, said her cousin left Cairo in October, heading back to her home on the war-ravaged outskirts of Khartoum. She said she "would rather die there than stay here," said Hussein, 33. Her family has not heard from her since.

Hussein is now hosting another refugee, a 20-year old mother of two who had been staying with her grandmother, until the landlord threatened the elderly woman with eviction if the newcomers did not leave. Unable to find a job or an apartment, "she's insisting on going back to Sudan," Hussein said. "She has a one-year-old she can't feed. She doesn't know what to do."

Yet back in Sudan, the situation is no better: her Khartoum neighbourhood has been shelled beyond recognition, and the homes that still stand are overrun with fighters. 

"People are being forced to choose between being homeless and being unsafe," said Sudanese political economist Raga Makawi. "Unable to afford even squalid conditions in Egypt, they choose to go back, preferring to negotiate their security with armed actors however they can," she told AFP.

The threat of homelessness is just around the corner for several Sudanese AFP interviewed.

Hawa Talfon, a preacher's wife, was kicked out with only two weeks' notice for hosting too many displaced family members. She had lived in her home in eastern Cairo for five years, before her brother's family joined her to flee the war. "What was I supposed to do? Kick them out?" she asked, after her landlord objected to her guests.

- 'Burden' -

AFP heard from dozens of Sudanese families across Cairo who faced the same fate, with landlords citing reasons such as "excess wear-and-tear" on their properties.

Under the shadow of the nationwide financial crisis, rights groups and Sudanese living in Egypt have warned of rising anti-refugee sentiment.

Yasser Ali, 40, who came to Cairo in 2002 to study law, told AFP that just in the past year, "everything has changed, people's attitudes have got a lot more aggressive."

According to Nour Khalil, founder of the advocacy organisation Refugees Platform in Egypt, there is "a concerted campaign, based purely on misinformation, to place the blame for the current economic crisis on society's most vulnerable."

Last month, the government said it would audit how much Egypt's "guests" -- as the administration calls nine million refugees and immigrants -- cost the country.

Almost in tandem, Khalil and other rights defenders tracked a rise in social media posts labelling refugees as a "burden", though most receive little to no assistance from either the United Nations or the government.

Cairo for its part holds that new arrivals are allowed to work and move "freely".

Rents have soared in Cairo as the economic crisis worsens, though rights groups and Sudanese told AFP landlords were specifically targeting Sudanese residents.

"You either pay up or they'll find someone who will," Kiir said, with some families like Talfon's given a different ultimatum: kick out "your own flesh and blood" or leave.

As the war rages, people have been left with no options.

"We can't go back, we can't move anywhere else, and we can't stay here," Ali said from a Sudanese community centre in Cairo -- which is also under threat of eviction.          


View original:


Friday, February 23, 2024

Sudanese actor Warrag Omar selling pastries in Addis

HERE is an inspiring story. Even the photo of Sudanese comedian Warrag Omar gives off a warm and friendly vibe. In my experience, this quote from the story can apply to almost everyone, not just the Sudanese: “Of course, if you tell Sudanese that you plan to do something, they will immediately take your idea and implement it. That’s why I didn’t talk to anyone about my pastries project, I didn’t even talk to myself, but just started it.” Read more.

From Radio Dabanga website
Dated 13 February 2024 13:47 ADDIS ABABA
Sudanese actor now selling pastries in Addis Ababa

Sudanese comedian Warrag Omar selling pastries in Addis Ababa, 
February 9 (Photo: Ashraf Abdelaziz / RD)

Sudanese comedian Warrag Omar, who arrived in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa after fleeing his home in Khartoum, refused to sit idle and successfully began selling pastries in the city. His small restaurant has become a meeting place for both Sudanese refugees and Ethiopian artists.

Warrag Omar, famous among the Sudanese for the characters of Wad El Shorba (the soup boy) and Hasan Ta’reefa (Hasan penny) he embodied during his performances in Khartoum, last year fled Burri in north-east Khartoum when “the bullets at the beginning of this absurd war had punctured all the windows of the neighbourhood”.

Via East Nile in Khartoum North, Merowe in Northern State, he “finally reached Addis Ababa,” Omar told Radio Dabanga correspondent Ashraf Abdelaziz in an interview on Friday.

“When the war broke out on April 15, I was in Omdurman and managed to reach my family in Khartoum the same day. As we were living in Burri Imtidad Nasir, we were close to the General Command of the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), where the clashes were very severe from the first day. We thought that the matter would calm down after two or three days, but it continued for months. When the situation became really tight, with prolonged lack of water and food, power outages, and most of our money spent, I decided we’d move to the north, to Merowe.”

Customers buying pastries at the Jeddah restaurant in Addis Ababa, where Sudanese comedian Warrag Omar is now selling pastries, February 9 (Photo: Ashraf Abdelaziz / RD)


Asked about ways of supporting his family in Merowe, he said that “we still did not imagine that the fighting would last much longer. I thought we would spend a week or so. When we discovered that we were facing a fait accompli, that the war would continue for a long time, I thought about ways of livelihood, because we were almost out of money.

“Of course, if you tell Sudanese that you plan to do something, they will immediately take your idea and implement it. That’s why I didn’t talk to anyone about my pastries project, I didn’t even talk to myself, but just started it.”

The actor definitely benefited from the advertisements he posted on his Facebook page about “super comfortable pastries” and “affectionate pastries which take care of your complete well-being”.

The people started coming, he said. “They didn’t come for the sweets, but for the entertainment, pictures, and stories. You know of course, when a famous man arrives at a village and sits with the villagers, they say ‘Let’s go, let’s join”.

Omar did not have any experience in making pastries, called basta in Sudan. “I only knew how to eat basta. I used to buy it from a factory and sell it. Only recently I learned to make basbousa myself.”

The Jeddah restaurant in Addis Ababa, where Sudanese comedy actor Warrag Omar sells his pastries, February 9 (Photo: Ashraf Abdelaziz / RD)

Addis Ababa

The actor began to lose his customers in Merowe when the purchasing power of the people further decreased. “A friend of mine living in Addis advised me to come and continue selling pastries there. I doubted at first, because I know that Ethiopians do not like sweets as much as we do, but thank God I went, posted advertisements, and things went well.

“I started in a small shop with seven chairs. People used to come in large numbers and could not find a place to sit. Later, I moved to the Jeddah Restaurant.”

With his livelihood “kind of secured”, Warrag Omar has set up a charity fund.

“One time at a very cold night, I found a Sudanese man sleeping in the street. It really upset me, and I rented a hotel room for him. From that time, I decided to act on the problems of the Sudanese, and created a fund called Yad be-Yad (hand in hand) in order to solve such simple problems. I really appreciate the help of many young Sudanese concerning this project.”

Meeting place

“Our shop is not only tea and pastries. It has become an extensive meeting place for Sudanese refugees here in the city,” Omar added. “In addition, many Ethiopian artists join us here, especially since the Ethiopian culture is close to ours.”

Before he left Sudan, Omar made awareness-raising sketches on the subject of the war. “I have no connection to any party, I am just someone who loves art, drama, and safety.”

The comedian is now thinking about working together with Ethiopian actors and present sketches or a performance on the necessity of stopping the war in his home country.

“If respected producers are available, we will be able to perform beautiful art. The artist’s mission is to spread peace and love,” he said. “Artists are stronger than politicians, than anything. The artist is the mirror of society, he mirrors the problems of the people, including the politicians themselves.”

View original:


Thursday, February 22, 2024

Sudan: SIM card frenzy in Port Sudan amid blackouts. Map of Internet availability and connectivity in Sudan

NOTE from Sudan Watch Editor: I am contributing to this map by adding notes such as those below. I exchanged emails with Sudanese people this week  in Khartoum and South Kordofan. Both are in the yellow part of the map. The map shows internet availability and network connection in Sudan as at 20 Feb 2024. Green - Network available . Yellow - Network blackout.
Credit: map and caption Anas Yassin
Map showing Internet availability and network connection in Sudan 20/Feb/2024 . Green - Network available . Yellow - Network blackout 

Today, I exchanged emails with a Sudanese person in Gedaref State, Sudan who says, "Yes we were out of network service for many days, but it's back now. The internet is somehow difficult to access in Gedaref, there is only one telecommnications company (Sudatel) that works, besides the heavy load of data, but the situation is stable. It doesn't work in many Gedaref State localities. However, it's good in downtown and other localities which are 50 kilometres from Gedaref town. Also, Sennar and Aj Jazira State and Blue Nile are blackout. But in some areas like Central Darfur they're using Starlink satellite network. I am in Gedaref and had a visitor today from Sennar who said there is no activation of telecommunications in Sennar." 

Also, I asked "are you using a Sudatel SIM card? I've just read this report (below) and wondered if it is possible to get those SIM cards (like the ones in report) to the yellow area of the map showing internet blackout, would they work? The answer was, "Yes, I am using a Sudatel SIM card".

I asked "is electricity supply stable in Gedaref, Aj Jazirah State, Sennar and Blue Nile?" The answer says, "It's not stable in Gedaref State about 80%, I don't know about Aj Jazira State and Blue Nile, but it's not stable in Sennar."

A few days ago, someone in London commented to me they'd spoken to people in Omdurman (15 min drive from Khartoum) via WhatsApp, the people had to visit souk Libya's market for WiFi. The voice call was clear. The person in London received more calls over past week from same person, and used a phone to transfer funds to the caller in Sudan by using Bankak. 

So, going by the above: 
  • internet connectivity in Khartoum does work but is patchy;
  • a place in Omburdman is OK if one can visit a WiFi spot;
  • place in South Kordofan was found to be OK;
  • Sennar and Blue Nile are still in blackout
  • network doesn't work in many Gedaref State localities;
  • in Aj Jazirah State there is no network, it's still in blackout;
  • 50 miles from Gedaref town there are downtown areas and localities where connectivity is good;
  • in some parts of Central Darfur, Starlink is being used;
  • electricity is not stable 80% of time in Gederaf State; don't know about Aj Jazirah State;
  • electricity is not stable in Sennar.

My next step is to search for news on Sennar, Blue Nile, Gedaref State localities, Central Darfur to learn how people in those areas are managing in blackout and find out if anyone has received/sent a voice call/text/voicemail.

Meanwhile, if anyone affected by telecoms problems in Sudan, and the cost of running a phone, is reading this and can add further details - no matter how small - please email or post at X #keepeyesonsudan.

Going by what I have gathered so far, the telecoms situation in Sudan is extremely alarming and worrying for those living in the yellow part of the map. How are they getting news, help, food, water, meds, electricity? It's like they have been thrown back into the Stone Age. It is totally unacceptable.


My comment posted at the map
Thanks for posting this visual. What is the source of the data? Does it include all telecoms/TV/landline telephony/mobile comms telcos/internet connectivity? A few days ago I received messages via LinkedIn from reliable sources inside Khartoum itself and in South Kordofan. If the map is accurate, maybe there's a tiny minority in the orange sections who have access to Starlink or something that is not available to the majority. If the orange section shows areas suffering a near total blackout, I am shocked and surprised there has not been a loud outcry. Are you currently located in White Nile? If so, are you and the folks you know in White Nile in total blackout? White Nile is in orange section. 

Report from Radio Tamazuj - Port Sudan
Dated Tuesday 20 February 2024 - here is a copy in full:

Sudani SIM card frenzy in Port Sudan amid service cuts

Hundreds of Sudanese citizens flocked to the Sudani Telecommunications Company headquarters in Port Sudan to get their hands on the company’s special communication SIM cards. This surge in demand follows weeks of complete communication service interruption in Sudan, a result of the ongoing war in the country.

Speaking to Radio Tamazuj Monday, Haired Abdel Salam, a Sudanese citizen, said: “I’ve been attempting to acquire a Sudani SIM for four days now. It’s not about getting a new SIM; rather, I’m trying to restore my old one.” He expressed difficulty in accessing the service due to the large crowds.

Mohammed Mustafa also recounted his visit to Sudani Communications Services, stating, “I needed to obtain a SIM card for the first time because of the communication outage. However, I was taken aback by the overwhelming number of people waiting for the service.” He noted the high cost of the service, even when attempting to acquire it from outside the company premises.

Meanwhile, the Executive Director of the Sudanese Telecommunications Company (Sudani), Engineer Majdi Mohammed Abdullah, stated that over the past five months, despite the loss of the billing system, the company has persevered in its efforts to provide services without charge. Emphasizing the importance of sustaining operations despite the incurred losses, Abdullah highlighted the commitment to continue working despite the challenges faced by the company.

In recent months, Sudan has experienced a complete halt in telecommunications services, impacting both communication and internet services. This situation has raised concerns, particularly with the interruption of essential banking services that citizens rely on, given the wartime conditions. Additionally, various other services dependent on the internet in Sudan have been affected.

View original:


Tuesday, February 20, 2024

4 VIDEO CHATS: Sudan War and Civilisation feat. Layla AbdelRahi & Ushari Ahmed Mahmud Khalil

NOTE from Sudan Watch Editor: Here are four 30-minute video chats between Dr Layla AbdelRahim and Dr Ushari Ahmed Mahmud Khalil. The chats cover wide ranging topics focusing on Sudan's war and civilisation. After finding Part 2 by accident and viewing it, I am documenting all 4 here.

War and Civilisation 1: What we can learn from Sudan - 14 Nov 2023
War and Civilisation 2: Sudan and the Roots of Turmoil - 9 Dec 2023
War and Civilisation 3: The Genealogy of Genocide - 30 Dec 2023
War and Civilisation 4: The State is Corruption - 6 January 2024

Image credit: Ushari Ahmed Mahmud Khalil Facebook

War and Civilisation 1: What we can learn from Sudan 

14 Nov 2023

To view the 26 minute video discussion click here:


All raging wars are alike; each peaceful initiative fails in its own way.

September this year marked the 40th anniversary of the implementation of Shari'a Laws in Sudan. 1983 thus took a step out of the geopolitical crossroads into the direction of today.

Even though humanity has waged war for thousands of years, we are still surprised each time a new war erupts. We are baffled by the narrative on the “other” side. We are outraged. Dismayed. And passionately, we fall into the trap of the narrative we believe.

I was a teenager, studying civil engineering and working several jobs at a time, when the Second Civil War in Sudan broke out. The narratives explaining the war seemed lopsided to me, even false. So, I decided to investigate for myself. Ushari and I met at the Sudan Times daily. Bona Malwal was the editor-in-chief at the time. Indignant at the cruelty and injustices around us, we both strove to uncover the truth and right the wrongs. It is rare to meet someone with such integrity and dedication as Ushari. Even after political imprisonment and now in exile, he remains the voice of human conscience.

I hope you will find this conversation interesting and helpful in your own endeavours to better humanity. This is the first of five parts.

You can support Ushari Ahmed Mahmud Khalil’s work by engaging his translation services or donations and follow him on Twitter; YouTube; Faceook.

Ushari Mahmud analyses and reports on the political situation in Sudan. He started as a sociolinguist dedicated to understanding the impact of the diversity of languages in Sudan on the society and politics. His M.A. thesis at the I.A.A.S (Institute for African and Asian Studies) at the University of Khartoum in 1974 was titled “The Phonology of a Dying Nubian Language Birgid”.

He defended his doctoral dissertation in 1979 at Georgetown University on pidgin Arabic in South Sudan, titled “Linguistic variation and change in the aspectual system of Juba Arabic”.

In 1987, he and his colleague, Suleyman Ali Baldo - a defender of human rights - published a report on “Al Dhaein Massacre and Slavery in Sudan” for which both were imprisoned.

His book on language, titled “Arabic in the southern Sudan: History and spread of pidgin creole”.

A relevant article by Zeinab Mohammed Salih: “Viewpoint from Sudan — where Black people are called slaves”.


War and Civilisation 2: Sudan and the Roots of Turmoil

9 Dec 2023

To view the 32 minute video discussion click here:


In this part of my conversation with Ushari Ahmad Mahmud Khalil, we delve into the root of the unending turmoil in Sudan. We discuss religion and the role it plays in framing the politics around resources.

Sources and further reading:

Mahmoud Mohammed Taha

Glimpses of the life and thoughts of Ustadh Mahmoud Mohamed Taha. Documentary by Steve Howard, Ohio University

Interview with Asma Mahmoud Mohammed Taha (daughter) by Steve Howard

Documentary by Ahmed Al Muhanna in 2 parts (Arabic)

A brief history of Mahmoud Mohammed Taha’s life and work

An overview of events regarding Mahmoud Mohammed Taha

Book: Quest for Divinity: A Critical Examination of the Thought of Mahmud Mohammad Taha, by  Mohamed A. Mahmoud

On the thought of Mahmoud Mohammad Taha

Jean-René Milot wrote a Master’s thesis on Mahmoud Mohammed Taha at the Faculty of Law, University of Montreal in 2007

U.S. and Muslim Brotherhood

See books and articles by the Montreal-born, American journalist Ian Johnson

Investigative journalist Robert Dreyfuss’ work, for example: Cold War, Holy Warrior

Eric Reeves on U.S chargé d’affaires to Sudan Steven Koutsis’ statements on U.S interests and policies vis à vis Sudan

Wildlife trafficking

UN report on wildlife trafficking

European Union funding the Janjaweed to Curb Migration

An independent report by the Swedish Development Forum on EU funding the Janjaweed (RSF) to stop migration

A report by Suliman Baldo “Border Control from Hell: How the EU’s migration partnership legitimizes Sudan’s ‘militia state’” (2017)

UN project ReliefWeb on Baldo’s report: “Border Control from Hell: How the EU’s migration partnership legitimizes Sudan’s “militia state” Support Forces (RSF) to stop migration to Europe

A question to the European Parliament on EU funds for the Rapid Support Forces (Janjaweed) in Sudan to curb migration to Europe

Criticism of EU and UN training and funding the RSF or Janjaweed in Sudan

An article by Bashair Ahmed and Salih Amaar “Escaping Sudan’s Prison: Deciphering the Realities of the EU-Sudan Migration Deal

Russia, Sudan, and South Sudan Relations

South Sudan:

Putin and South Sudan leader agree to cooperate on security Military base

Russia and South Sudan agreement on mining uranium and lithium in South Sudan


Cooperation on gold and rare metals mining in Sudan

Expert on world politics and professor of political science Natalia Piskounova’s analysis of Sudan’s strife for dominating mining resources

Sudan and Russia agree on military base 

Music By Ayman Mao

Tags Sudan geopolitics religion resources war


War and Civilisation 3: The Genealogy of Genocide
30 Dec 2023

To view the 28 minute video discussion click here:


Sources and further reading

History of slavery in Sudan

Map of eastern slave trade route through Sudan

Professor of Anthropology from South Sudan, Jok Madut Jok, on slavery in Sudan

UN definition of “crimes against humanity

My Career Redeeming Slaves” by John Eibner, in the Middle East Quarterly, Dec 1999, pp. 3-16

Ushari and Baldo

On Ushari’s detention and imprisonment for his work on human rights

Sudanese forces for change: beware of Sadiq Almahdi

Map of 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries Sudan

Report on Sharia law and the death penalty

South Sudan Secession

The timeline in the video comes from the Center of International Media Assistance

Al Arabiya on the referendum for the secession of South Sudan

Photo credits

The following come from archaeologist Shadia Taha:

Photograph of camel caravan entering Suakin port in the 1830s from Durham Sudan Archive

Map of trade routes

Plan of Suakin’s districts on the three islands and the historic centre from British Museum

Suakin, between the sea and the desert: connected landscapes

Photographs from and more info on the ancient Sudanese Kingdom of Kush

Photographs of John Garang, Ushari, and myself were taken by Atem Yaak, journalist and former Deputy Minister of Information (from my personal archive).

Photographs of SPLA/M leadership.

Omar al Bashir and John Garang sign peace deal and John Garang joins the government.

Photograph of Addis Ababa airport 1984

Photograph of Juba, capital of South Sudan

An early 20th-century IWW poster depicts the workers who hold the edifices of capitalism on their shoulders. Above are the government and religion. From 1911 IWW newspaper/WikiMedia Commons.

This poster echoes Leo Tolstoy’s famous quote from “What Then Must We Do?”:

“I sit on a man's back choking him and making him carry me, and yet assure myself and others that I am sorry for him and wish to lighten his load by all means possible… except by getting off his back”.

Photograph of woman, man, and sheep in Khartoum market by Marwan Ali from AP

Photographs of the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue and an American soldier from AP

Photograph of Saddam Hussein and Muammar Ghaddafi from a 2015 article on Donald Trump

Photograph of Old City, Mosul, Iraq by Felipe Dana, AP

Photograph of destroyed Iraq, 20 years on by Khalid Mohammed, AP

Photographs of Iraq from Wiki commons:

Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad

One of the oldest Christian monasteries, Dayro d-Mor Mattai monastery in Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. Holds a rich collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts

The head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin in bronze

Tags Islamic Brotherhood SPLA/SPLM Sudan civilisation domestication genocide pol slavery war


War and Civilisation 4: The State is Corruption

6 January 2024

To view the 30 minute video discussion click here:


Sources & References

Map of Sudan comes from ISS 

EU tied to violence in South Sudan

Working at the nexus of human and nonhuman animal exploitation

Music by Tinariwen Sahara 

Contact information for Ushari Ahmad Mahmud Khalil

Tags SPLA/SPLM Sudan civilisation politics war