Sudan: European Union response to the Darfur crisis
Source: European Commission - Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) 17 July, 2006 (via ReliefWeb)
Responding to the Darfur conflict that has been raging since 2003, the European Union has been at the forefront of international assistance backing up efforts led by the African Union (AU). The EU's support has included the following major components:
Mobilisation of funds of around EUR 1 billion. Most resources have been provided for humanitarian assistance, including food aid and aid to Darfur refugees in neighbouring Chad. The European Commission alone has allocated EUR 282 million in humanitarian support. EU Member States have provided around EUR 12 million in support of the political process. Contributions to the Ceasefire Commission (CFC) and the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) amount to approximately EUR 325 million, including funding from the African Peace Facility of EUR 212 million.
Support for human rights inquiries and calls for an end to impunity in Darfur. On 26 July 2004, the EU supported calls for the creation of an international commission of inquiry into human rights violations, which was duly established. It welcomed the international commission's findings, submitted to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on 25 January 2005 and condemned the crimes described in the report. The EU stresses the importance of terminating impunity in Darfur and was the prime mover behind UN Security Council Resolution 1593 which referred the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court. Similarly, the EU fully supports the ongoing investigations by the ICC of human rights abuses in Darfur.
Support for the efforts of UN Special Representative, Jan Pronk, to ensure compliance with Security Council resolutions (1556, 1564, 1574, 1590, 1591, 1593, 1651, 1665, 1672 and 1679(1) ). EU Heads of Mission in Khartoum participate in the Joint Implementation Mechanisms established by the Government of Sudan and the Special Representative to supervise compliance with the Resolutions.
Active support for the Abuja peace talks leading to the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA). From its early involvement, when it helped broker the N'djamena ceasefire, the EU has steadily increased its diplomatic activity in relation to Sudan, as well as its operational support to AMIS (see details below). The EU, which has been assigned a specific role in the agreement, will continue to play a crucial part in its implementation - notably in the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation (DDDC) process and in the Darfur Assessment and Evaluation Commission, and by providing assistance for post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation efforts.
Continuing support for the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). This is provided through diplomatic efforts - notably by the EU Special Representative, through political dialogue with the Government of National Unity of Sudan, and through EU assistance programmes that particularly focus on war-affected areas in Southern and Central Sudan. The EU is thus contributing to the overall stabilisation of Sudan, a country that has suffered from civil strife throughout most of its modern history.
EU support to the African Union Mission in Darfur - AMIS
The EU and its Member States have been providing a wide range of support to the African Union's (AU) efforts to help stabilise the situation in Darfur since January 2004. This support has included financial, personnel and political support to the Abuja talks process and the Ceasefire Commission. It also includes support to AMIS through the provision of equipment and assets, planning and technical assistance, military observers, training of African troops and civilian police officers and strategic transportation.
- Almost 100 personnel from the EU and its Member States have been deployed to Sudan in support of the military component of AMIS and a further 50 in support of the civilian police component.(2)
- In the same period, EU Member States have provided coordinated strategic airlift for well over 2000 African Union personnel.
- The EU has committed a total of EUR 212 million from the African Peace Facility in support of AMIS since June 2004. This has provided the funds necessary to pay personnel costs including salaries, allowances, insurance, travel, rations and medical costs.
- Additionally, EU Member States have made substantial bilateral contributions - financial as well as the provision of expertise, equipment, food rations, airlift, etc. The estimated amount of Member States' support to AMIS is approximately EUR 115 million.
- The EU Special Representative for Sudan, Mr Pekka Haavisto, who was appointed in July 2005, ensures coordination and coherence of the EU'S contributions to AMIS. He is assisted by a team of EU military and police advisers in Addis Ababa.
(1) For more details: http://www.un.org/Docs/sc
(2) EU personnel currently deployed to AMIS II includes 29 police officers, 17 military experts, and 10 military observers. In addition, 3 military staff, one police officer and one political advisor have been deployed to Addis Ababa to support the EUSR in his contacts and cooperation with the AU. Finally, 3 officers will be deployed to the Forward Joint Mission Headquarters (Al Fasher).